Transcranial Doppler with contrast injection for the detection of patent foramen ovale in stroke patients

Marco Di Tullio, Ralph L. Sacco, Ayrton Massaro, N. Venketasubramanian, David Sherman, Michael Hoffmann, J. P. Mohr, Shunichi Homma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Right-to-left shunt through a patent foramen ovale was searched for in 80 patients with acute ischemic stroke by simultaneously performing transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography and transcranial Doppler during agitated saline injection. A patent foramen ovale was detected by echocardiography in 14 patients (17.5%). Transcranial Doppler correctly identified all 14 patients, and 7 more patients in whom echocardiographic findings were indeterminate. Prevalence of patent foramen ovale by transcranial Doppler was therefore 26.3% (21 of 80 patients). Concordance between the two tests was 91.3% (73 of 80 patients). The delivery of contrast material to cerebral vessels is therefore demonstrable by transcranial Doppler in all patients diagnosed by contrast echocardiography, suggesting that paradoxical embolization through a patent foramen ovale may be more frequent than previously thought. Transcranial Doppler with contrast injection is a valid alternative in case of poor echocardiographic image quality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalThe International Journal of Cardiac Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 1993
Externally publishedYes


  • cerebrovascular disorders
  • contrast echocardiography
  • foramen ovale
  • stroke
  • transcranial Doppler

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Transcranial Doppler with contrast injection for the detection of patent foramen ovale in stroke patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this