Transcranial doppler detection of cerebral fat emboli and relation to paradoxical embolism: A pilot study

Alejandro M. Forteza, Sebastian Koch, Iszet Campo-Bustillo, Jose Gutierrez, Diogo C. Haussen, Alejandro A. Rabinstein, Jose Romano, Gregory A. Zych, Robert C. Duncan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background-: The fat embolism syndrome is clinically characterized by dyspnea, skin petechiae, and neurological dysfunction. It is associated mainly with long bone fracture and bone marrow fat passage to the systemic circulation. An intracardiac right-to-left shunt (RLS) could allow larger fat particles to reach the systemic circulation. Transcranial Doppler can be a useful tool to detect both RLS and the fat particles reaching the brain. Methods and Results-: We prospectively studied patients with femur shaft fracture with RLS evaluation, daily transcranial Doppler with embolus detection studies, and neurological examinations to evaluate the relation of RLS and microembolic signals to the development of fat embolism syndrome. Forty-two patients were included; 14 had an RLS detected. Seven patients developed neurological symptoms; all of them had a positive RLS (P=<0.001). The patients with an RLS showed higher counts and higher intensities of microembolic signals (P=<0.05 and P=<0.01, respectively) compared with those who did not have an RLS identified. The presence of high microembolic signal counts and intensities in patients with RLS was strongly predictive of the occurrence of neurological symptoms (odds ratio, 204; 95% confidence interval, 11 to 3724; P<0.001) with a positive predictive value of 86% and negative predictive value of 97%. Conclusions-: In patients with long bone fractures, the presence of an RLS is associated with larger and more frequent microembolic signals to the brain detected by transcranial Doppler study and can predict the development of neurological symptoms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1947-1952
Number of pages6
JournalCirculation
Volume123
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - May 10 2011

Keywords

  • embolism
  • embolism fat
  • foramen ovale patent
  • stroke
  • ultrasonography Doppler transcranial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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    Forteza, A. M., Koch, S., Campo-Bustillo, I., Gutierrez, J., Haussen, D. C., Rabinstein, A. A., Romano, J., Zych, G. A., & Duncan, R. C. (2011). Transcranial doppler detection of cerebral fat emboli and relation to paradoxical embolism: A pilot study. Circulation, 123(18), 1947-1952. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.950634