Training and employment programs in methadone treatment: Client needs and desires

Michael T. French, Michael L. Dennis, Gail L. McDougal, Georgia T. Karuntzos, Robert L. Hubbard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


Training and employment programs (TEP) in methadone treatment have declined in recent years. Yet heroin abusers who enter methadone treatment have historically high unemployment and low earnings compared to the general population and other treatment modalities. This paper reports on the first phase of a multiyear project to develop and evaluate TEPs for methadone treatment clients. Preliminary findings from the treatment intake survey of the pilot study are used to identify client needs and desires. Specifically, we report descriptive statistics for clients' (a) demographics, (b) education and training, (c) employment status, (d) income and expenditures, (e) interest in a TEP, and (f) labor market expectations thereafter. We conclude with a presentation of our proposed future analyses and a discussion of the policy implications of the project. Our main finding is that most addicts have a strong interest in training and employment services, but their expectations about the impact of such services is often unrealistic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-303
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • cost-effectiveness analysis
  • methadone treatment
  • program evaluation
  • randomized trial
  • training and unemployment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Phychiatric Mental Health
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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