Third Trimester Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Birth Outcomes and Linear Growth of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in the United States

Christopher R. Sudfeld, Denise L. Jacobson, Noé M. Rueda, Daniela Neri, Armando J. Mendez, Laurie Butler, Suzanne Siminski, Kristy M. Hendricks, Claude A. Mellins, Christopher P. Duggan, Tracie L. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background:Vitamin D status in pregnancy may influence the risk of prematurity, birth size, and child postnatal growth, but few studies have examined the relationship among pregnant women living with HIV.Methods:We conducted a prospective cohort study of 257 HIV-infected mothers and their HIV-exposed uninfected infants who were enrolled in the 2009-2011 nutrition substudy of the Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities (SMARTT) study. HIV-infected pregnant women had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assessed in the third trimester of pregnancy, and their infants' growth and neurodevelopment were evaluated at birth and approximately 1 year of age.Results:The mean third trimester serum 25(OH)D concentration was 35.4 ± 14.2 ng/mL with 15% of women classified as vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL) and 21% as insufficient (20-30 ng/mL). In multivariable models, third trimester vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were associated with -273 g [95% confidence interval (CI): -450 to -97] and -203 g (95% CI: -370 to -35) lower birth weights compared with vitamin D sufficient women, respectively. Maternal vitamin D deficiency was also associated with shorter gestation (mean difference -0.65 weeks; 95% CI: -1.22 to -0.08) and lower infant length-for-age z-scores at 1 year of age (mean difference: -0.65; 95% CI: -1.18 to -0.13). We found no association of vitamin D status with infant neurodevelopment at 1 year of age.Conclusion:Third trimester maternal vitamin D deficiency was associated with lower birth weight, shorter length of gestation, and reduced infant linear growth. Studies and trials of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy for women living with HIV are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)336-344
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume81
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019

Keywords

  • HIV
  • Vitamin D
  • micronutrients
  • nutrition
  • pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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    Sudfeld, C. R., Jacobson, D. L., Rueda, N. M., Neri, D., Mendez, A. J., Butler, L., Siminski, S., Hendricks, K. M., Mellins, C. A., Duggan, C. P., & Miller, T. L. (2019). Third Trimester Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Birth Outcomes and Linear Growth of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 81(3), 336-344. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002041