Therapy for Transient Ischemic Attacks Surgical Therapy Carotid endarterectomy remains the mainstay of the therapy for TIAs that are caused by carotid stenosis. First introduced in 1954 by Eastcott et al.,104 the procedure has been associated with a morbidity ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, depending largely on the patient population and the experience of the surgeon. 42,55,105 106 107 108 109 Although many studies suggest that this procedure is effective in preventing additional TIAs or strokes,55,105 106 107,109,110 its value is yet to be confirmed by a well-designed, controlled, randomized clinical trial. In the one multicenter controlled study published thus far, 24 centers randomly assigned.
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