Therapeutic modulation of brain temperature

relevance to ischemic brain injury.

Myron Ginsberg, L. L. Sternau, M. Y. Globus, W. Dalton Dietrich, R. Busto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

380 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hypothermia was first applied therapeutically as a local anesthetic and later was used to achieve organ protection during procedures necessitating circulatory interruption. Profound whole-body hypothermia, typically carried out in conjunction with extracorporeal bypass, has long been employed during cardiac and neurosurgical operative procedures. More recently, studies in small-animal experimental models of cerebral ischemia have provided persuasive evidence that even small decreases in brain temperature confer striking protection against ischemic neuronal injury. By contrast, small elevations of brain temperature during ischemia accelerate and extend pathologic changes in the brain and promote early disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Hypothermia retards the rate of high-energy phosphate depletion during ischemia and promotes postischemic metabolic recovery. More importantly, mild intraischemic hypothermia markedly attenuates the release of glutamate into the brain's extracellular space and significantly diminishes the release of dopamine. Similarly, the inhibition of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II triggered by normothermic ischemia is prevented by hypothermia, as is the ischemia-induced translocation and inhibition of the key regulatory enzyme protein kinase C. Hypothermia also appears to facilitate the resynthesis of ubiquitin following ischemia. Studies of potential clinical importance have shown that moderate hypothermia is capable of attenuating ischemic damage even if instituted early in the postischemic period. In the setting of focal cerebral ischemia, moderate brain hypothermia reduces the infarct size (particularly in the setting of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion); conversely, hyperthermia markedly increases the infarct volume. These studies underscore the importance of monitoring and regulating the brain temperature during experimental studies of cerebral ischemia to insure a consistent pathologic outcome and to avoid the false attribution of "pharmacoprotection" to drugs that reduce the body temperature. The measurement of brain temperature is now practicable in neurosurgical patients requiring invasive monitoring, and human studies have shown that cortical and cerebroventricular temperatures may exceed systemic temperatures. Mild to moderate decreases in brain temperature are neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia, while mild elevations of brain temperature are markedly deleterious in the setting of ischemia or injury. It is anticipated that controlled clinical trials of therapeutic brain temperature modulation will be undertaken over the next several years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-225
Number of pages37
JournalCerebrovascular and Brain Metabolism Reviews
Volume4
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 1992

Fingerprint

ischemia
Brain Injuries
hypothermia
Hypothermia
brain
therapeutics
Temperature
Brain
Ischemia
temperature
Brain Ischemia
Therapeutics
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2
infarction
Neurosurgical Procedures
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
local anesthetics
blood-brain barrier
monitoring
extracellular space

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Therapeutic modulation of brain temperature : relevance to ischemic brain injury. / Ginsberg, Myron; Sternau, L. L.; Globus, M. Y.; Dalton Dietrich, W.; Busto, R.

In: Cerebrovascular and Brain Metabolism Reviews, Vol. 4, No. 3, 01.09.1992, p. 189-225.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{558edde9de4c4dc1bf7d07ca9c8be84c,
title = "Therapeutic modulation of brain temperature: relevance to ischemic brain injury.",
abstract = "Hypothermia was first applied therapeutically as a local anesthetic and later was used to achieve organ protection during procedures necessitating circulatory interruption. Profound whole-body hypothermia, typically carried out in conjunction with extracorporeal bypass, has long been employed during cardiac and neurosurgical operative procedures. More recently, studies in small-animal experimental models of cerebral ischemia have provided persuasive evidence that even small decreases in brain temperature confer striking protection against ischemic neuronal injury. By contrast, small elevations of brain temperature during ischemia accelerate and extend pathologic changes in the brain and promote early disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Hypothermia retards the rate of high-energy phosphate depletion during ischemia and promotes postischemic metabolic recovery. More importantly, mild intraischemic hypothermia markedly attenuates the release of glutamate into the brain's extracellular space and significantly diminishes the release of dopamine. Similarly, the inhibition of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II triggered by normothermic ischemia is prevented by hypothermia, as is the ischemia-induced translocation and inhibition of the key regulatory enzyme protein kinase C. Hypothermia also appears to facilitate the resynthesis of ubiquitin following ischemia. Studies of potential clinical importance have shown that moderate hypothermia is capable of attenuating ischemic damage even if instituted early in the postischemic period. In the setting of focal cerebral ischemia, moderate brain hypothermia reduces the infarct size (particularly in the setting of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion); conversely, hyperthermia markedly increases the infarct volume. These studies underscore the importance of monitoring and regulating the brain temperature during experimental studies of cerebral ischemia to insure a consistent pathologic outcome and to avoid the false attribution of {"}pharmacoprotection{"} to drugs that reduce the body temperature. The measurement of brain temperature is now practicable in neurosurgical patients requiring invasive monitoring, and human studies have shown that cortical and cerebroventricular temperatures may exceed systemic temperatures. Mild to moderate decreases in brain temperature are neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia, while mild elevations of brain temperature are markedly deleterious in the setting of ischemia or injury. It is anticipated that controlled clinical trials of therapeutic brain temperature modulation will be undertaken over the next several years.",
author = "Myron Ginsberg and Sternau, {L. L.} and Globus, {M. Y.} and {Dalton Dietrich}, W. and R. Busto",
year = "1992",
month = "9",
day = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "4",
pages = "189--225",
journal = "Cerebrovascular and Brain Metabolism Reviews",
issn = "1040-8827",
publisher = "Raven Press",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Therapeutic modulation of brain temperature

T2 - relevance to ischemic brain injury.

AU - Ginsberg, Myron

AU - Sternau, L. L.

AU - Globus, M. Y.

AU - Dalton Dietrich, W.

AU - Busto, R.

PY - 1992/9/1

Y1 - 1992/9/1

N2 - Hypothermia was first applied therapeutically as a local anesthetic and later was used to achieve organ protection during procedures necessitating circulatory interruption. Profound whole-body hypothermia, typically carried out in conjunction with extracorporeal bypass, has long been employed during cardiac and neurosurgical operative procedures. More recently, studies in small-animal experimental models of cerebral ischemia have provided persuasive evidence that even small decreases in brain temperature confer striking protection against ischemic neuronal injury. By contrast, small elevations of brain temperature during ischemia accelerate and extend pathologic changes in the brain and promote early disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Hypothermia retards the rate of high-energy phosphate depletion during ischemia and promotes postischemic metabolic recovery. More importantly, mild intraischemic hypothermia markedly attenuates the release of glutamate into the brain's extracellular space and significantly diminishes the release of dopamine. Similarly, the inhibition of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II triggered by normothermic ischemia is prevented by hypothermia, as is the ischemia-induced translocation and inhibition of the key regulatory enzyme protein kinase C. Hypothermia also appears to facilitate the resynthesis of ubiquitin following ischemia. Studies of potential clinical importance have shown that moderate hypothermia is capable of attenuating ischemic damage even if instituted early in the postischemic period. In the setting of focal cerebral ischemia, moderate brain hypothermia reduces the infarct size (particularly in the setting of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion); conversely, hyperthermia markedly increases the infarct volume. These studies underscore the importance of monitoring and regulating the brain temperature during experimental studies of cerebral ischemia to insure a consistent pathologic outcome and to avoid the false attribution of "pharmacoprotection" to drugs that reduce the body temperature. The measurement of brain temperature is now practicable in neurosurgical patients requiring invasive monitoring, and human studies have shown that cortical and cerebroventricular temperatures may exceed systemic temperatures. Mild to moderate decreases in brain temperature are neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia, while mild elevations of brain temperature are markedly deleterious in the setting of ischemia or injury. It is anticipated that controlled clinical trials of therapeutic brain temperature modulation will be undertaken over the next several years.

AB - Hypothermia was first applied therapeutically as a local anesthetic and later was used to achieve organ protection during procedures necessitating circulatory interruption. Profound whole-body hypothermia, typically carried out in conjunction with extracorporeal bypass, has long been employed during cardiac and neurosurgical operative procedures. More recently, studies in small-animal experimental models of cerebral ischemia have provided persuasive evidence that even small decreases in brain temperature confer striking protection against ischemic neuronal injury. By contrast, small elevations of brain temperature during ischemia accelerate and extend pathologic changes in the brain and promote early disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Hypothermia retards the rate of high-energy phosphate depletion during ischemia and promotes postischemic metabolic recovery. More importantly, mild intraischemic hypothermia markedly attenuates the release of glutamate into the brain's extracellular space and significantly diminishes the release of dopamine. Similarly, the inhibition of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II triggered by normothermic ischemia is prevented by hypothermia, as is the ischemia-induced translocation and inhibition of the key regulatory enzyme protein kinase C. Hypothermia also appears to facilitate the resynthesis of ubiquitin following ischemia. Studies of potential clinical importance have shown that moderate hypothermia is capable of attenuating ischemic damage even if instituted early in the postischemic period. In the setting of focal cerebral ischemia, moderate brain hypothermia reduces the infarct size (particularly in the setting of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion); conversely, hyperthermia markedly increases the infarct volume. These studies underscore the importance of monitoring and regulating the brain temperature during experimental studies of cerebral ischemia to insure a consistent pathologic outcome and to avoid the false attribution of "pharmacoprotection" to drugs that reduce the body temperature. The measurement of brain temperature is now practicable in neurosurgical patients requiring invasive monitoring, and human studies have shown that cortical and cerebroventricular temperatures may exceed systemic temperatures. Mild to moderate decreases in brain temperature are neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia, while mild elevations of brain temperature are markedly deleterious in the setting of ischemia or injury. It is anticipated that controlled clinical trials of therapeutic brain temperature modulation will be undertaken over the next several years.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026916772&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026916772&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 4

SP - 189

EP - 225

JO - Cerebrovascular and Brain Metabolism Reviews

JF - Cerebrovascular and Brain Metabolism Reviews

SN - 1040-8827

IS - 3

ER -