Refractory angina presents a major clinical challenge for everyday medical practice. Despite the widespread use of statins and improvements in revascularization techniques, a substantial proportion of patients with preserved left ventricular function and no life-threatening arrhythmias remain symptomatic, with severe debilitating angina. Because the rate of major cardiac events in this population is relatively low, the major aim of therapy should be not only to prolong survival but also to improve quality of life. The cornerstone of therapy for all these patients should be the aggressive modification of risk factors using evidencebased treatment, with the aim of stabilizing the disease process and improving overall survival. No opportunity for revascularization should be overlooked. Complementary approaches should be implemented to raise the angina threshold by either reducing oxygen demand or improving hemodynamics to increase myocardial oxygen supply. This review provides an update on therapeutic techniques and goals, and reinforces the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients with refractory angina.
- Angina pectoris
- Coronary artery disease
- Quality of life
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine