The speciation of ions in Tiber river estuary waters

Frank J. Millero, Giuseppe Macchi, Maurizio Pettine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The composition of the major ionic constituents of the Tiber river waters has been analyzed from literature data. The ratio of the major cations and anions to chloride are strongly influenced by tributary waters (Paglia, Nera and Aniene rivers). The speciation of the major cations and anions have been determined for waters formed by mixing lower Tiber river waters and Tyrrhenian sea waters of constant composition. The results are compared to similar calculations for mixing average river waters with seawater. The total or stoichiometric activity coefficients for the major ionic components have been determined from the speciation results. Values for the ionization constant of weak acids in the waters were found to be in reasonable agreement with values determined at the same absolute salinity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)517-534
Number of pages18
JournalEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1981


  • Tyrrhenian sea
  • estuaries
  • ions
  • speciation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science


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