Recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) have revealed that skin microbiome dysbiosis plays an important role in the disease. In this review, we describe how changes in the structure and function of the microbiome are involved in the pathogenesis of AD. We highlight recent data showing that differential changes in microbial diversity, both within and across communities from different body habitats (including the skin, gut, and oral mucosa), are associated with the development and severity of AD. We also describe recent evidence demonstrating that the metabolic activity of the skin microbiome can act as a regulator of inflammation, with alterations in the level of a skin microbiome-derived tryptophan metabolite, indole-3-aldehyde (IAId), being shown to play a role in AD. The various mechanisms by which interactions between the microbiome and components of the non-histaminergic pathway result in itch in AD are also discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas