An increasing number of studies have proposed a strong correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress (OS) and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). With over five million people diagnosed in the United States alone, AD is the most common type of dementia worldwide. AD includes progressive neurodegeneration, followed by memory loss and reduced cognitive ability. Characterized by the formation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques as a hallmark, the connection between ROS and AD is compelling. Analyzing the ROS response of essential proteins in the amyloidogenic pathway, such as amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) and beta-secretase (BACE1), along with influential signaling programs of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), has helped visualize the path between OS and Aβ overproduction. In this review, attention will be paid to significant advances in the area of OS, epigenetics, and their influence on Aβ plaque assembly. Additionally, we aim to discuss available treatment options for AD that include antioxidant supplements, Asian traditional medicines, metal-protein-attenuating compounds, and histone modifying inhibitors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology