Acute leukaemias are a group of malignancies characterised by the invasion of the bone marrow by immature haematopoietic precursors and differentiation arrest at various maturation steps. Multiplicity of intrinsic and extrinsic factors influences the transformation and progression of leukaemia. The intrinsic factors encompass genetic alterations of cellular pathways leading to the activation of, among others, inflammatory pathways (such as nuclear factor kappa B). The extrinsic components include, among others, the inflammatory pathways activated by the bone marrow microenvironment and include chemokines, cytokines and adhesion molecules. In this chapter, we review the role of inflammatory processes in the transformation, survival and proliferation of leukaemias, particularly the role of nuclear factor kappa B and its downstream signalling in leukaemias and the novel therapeutic strategies that exploit potentially unique properties of inflammatory signalling that offer interesting options for future therapeutic interventions.