The role of hysteroscopy in reproductive surgery: Today and tomorrow

Gaetano Riemma, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Rahul Manchanda, Aayushi Rathore, Péter Török, Carlo De Angelis, Bulent Urman, Marco Iraci Sareri, Marco La Verde, Jose Carugno, Pasquale De Franciscis, Jan Tesarik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


During the last decades, the number of couples with reproductive issues has substantially increased. Many different factors are implicated in reproductive failure, including uterine factors. Endometrial pathologies, such as endometrial polyps, hyperplasia, endometritis, and Mullerian anomalies, can also hinder embryo implantation. Hysteroscopy remains the gold standard for the evaluation and treatment of intrauterine pathology. Over the last few years, advances in hysteroscopic instrumentations and surgical techniques have significantly evolved, the refinement in technology, miniaturization of instruments, and improved image quality have rendered hysteroscopy a more patient and user-friendly procedure that has enhanced its use in reproductive medicine. Nowadays, hysteroscopy is essential in the evaluation and treatment of women with infertility. This article underscores the major technological breakthroughs achieved over the last few years with emphasis on the role of artificial intelligence, augmented reality, and 3D hysteroscopy, which can set new benchmarks in hysteroscopy applied to reproductive medicine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102350
JournalJournal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D hysteroscopy
  • Clinical pregnancy
  • Hysteroscopy
  • IVF
  • Portable hysteroscope
  • Tissue retrieval system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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