The relation of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress: A meta-analysis of Black Americans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

69 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Volume60
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

Fingerprint

Socialization
Immersion
Meta-Analysis
Racism
Demography
Psychology

Keywords

  • Black Americans
  • Discrimination
  • Distress
  • Ethnic identity
  • Racial identity
  • Racial socialization
  • Racism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Social Psychology

Cite this

@article{746f64ac6b014468b2b79ba8f1710a3e,
title = "The relation of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress: A meta-analysis of Black Americans",
abstract = "This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)",
keywords = "Black Americans, Discrimination, Distress, Ethnic identity, Racial identity, Racial socialization, Racism",
author = "Debbiesiu Lee and Soyeon Ahn",
year = "2013",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1037/a0031275",
language = "English",
volume = "60",
pages = "1--14",
journal = "Journal of Counseling Psychology",
issn = "0022-0167",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The relation of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress

T2 - A meta-analysis of Black Americans

AU - Lee, Debbiesiu

AU - Ahn, Soyeon

PY - 2013/1/1

Y1 - 2013/1/1

N2 - This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)

AB - This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)

KW - Black Americans

KW - Discrimination

KW - Distress

KW - Ethnic identity

KW - Racial identity

KW - Racial socialization

KW - Racism

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84875513855&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84875513855&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/a0031275

DO - 10.1037/a0031275

M3 - Article

C2 - 23356464

AN - SCOPUS:84875513855

VL - 60

SP - 1

EP - 14

JO - Journal of Counseling Psychology

JF - Journal of Counseling Psychology

SN - 0022-0167

IS - 1

ER -