The relation of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress: A meta-analysis of Black Americans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Scopus citations

Abstract

This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Volume60
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

Keywords

  • Black Americans
  • Discrimination
  • Distress
  • Ethnic identity
  • Racial identity
  • Racial socialization
  • Racism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Social Psychology

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