To determine whether the observed association between mitral annular calcification (MAC) and mortality is independent of the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), we analyzed data from 134 male veterans (age 63 ± 10 years) followed for 5 years who had undergone diagnostic coronary angiography and transthoracic echocardiography within 6 months of each other. Echocardiograms were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of MAC. The relation of MAC to all-cause mortality was analyzed using logistic regression, and odds ratios (OR) were calculated. MAC was present in 49 (37%) subjects. Over the 5-year follow-up period, 38 (28%) patients expired. Five-year survival was 80% for subjects without MAC and 56% for subjects with MAC (P = 0.003). MAC (OR = 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43-6.96, P = 0.003), ejection fraction (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97, P = 0.02), and left main CAD (OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.11-6.57, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with mortality in univariate analysis. After adjusting for left ventricular ejection fraction, number of obstructed coronary arteries and the presence of left main coronary artery stenosis, MAC significantly predicted death (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.09-5.68, P = 0.03). Similarly, after adjusting for predictors of MAC, including ejection fraction, age, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure, MAC remained a significant predictor of death (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.02-5.58, P = 0.04). MAC also predicted death independent of smoking status, hypertension, serum creatinine, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein levels (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.68-9.40, P = 0.001). MAC detected by two-dimensional echocardiography independently predicts mortality and may provide an easy-to-perform and inexpensive way to improve risk stratification.
- Coronary artery disease
- Mitral annular calcification
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging