Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is frequently characterized by metastases to bone. Bisphosphonates have demonstrated efficacy in reducing the risk of skeletal-related events in cancer patients with bone metastases, including those with NSCLC. Zoledronic acid (ZA) is one of the most potent bisphosphonates and is approved for the first-line treatment of patients with multiple myeloma and bone metastases from solid tumors. Recent preclinical and clinical data suggest that ZA may also have direct and indirect anticancer effects. Several preclinical studies have provided insight into the potential mechanisms responsible for the anticancer activity of ZA, including inhibiting farnesyl pyrophosphate or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and activation of immune-mediated anticancer response by γδ T cells. In patients with NSCLC, ZA has been shown to reduce vascular endothelial growth factor levels with a direct correlation to clinical response. Clinical studies in this setting have shown that ZA may also provide a survival benefit and prolong time to progression. Ongoing studies are evaluating the efficacy of ZA for anticancer activity and prevention of bone metastases. Bisphosphonates, particularly ZA, are generally well tolerated and may likely offer an adjunct therapeutic option for patients with NSCLC.
- Bone metastases
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine