The phenomenology of real and illusory tip-of-the-tongue states

Bennett L. Schwartz, Donald M. Travis, Anthony M. Castro, Steven M. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The tip-of-the-tongue state (TOT) is the phenomenological experience that a word is on the verge of being recalled. Most research has been directed at TOT etiology and at retrieval processes occurring during a TOT. In this study, TOT phenomenology was examined. In Experiment 1, strong TOTs were more likely than weak TOTs to be followed by correct recognition, and resolution (later recall) of TOTs was higher for strong than for weak TOTs, but only for commission errors. In Experiment 2, emotional TOTs were more likely to be resolved and recognized than nonemotional TOTs. In Experiment 3, imminence was defined as the feeling that retrieval is about to occur. Imminent TOTs were more likely to be followed by resolution and recognition than were nonimminent TOTs. Illusory TOTs (TOTs for unanswerable questions) tended to be weaker, less emotional, and less imminent than TOTs for answerable questions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18-27
Number of pages10
JournalMemory and Cognition
Volume28
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000
Externally publishedYes

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Tongue
Emotions
Research
Phenomenology
Experiment
Emotion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Cite this

Schwartz, B. L., Travis, D. M., Castro, A. M., & Smith, S. M. (2000). The phenomenology of real and illusory tip-of-the-tongue states. Memory and Cognition, 28(1), 18-27.

The phenomenology of real and illusory tip-of-the-tongue states. / Schwartz, Bennett L.; Travis, Donald M.; Castro, Anthony M.; Smith, Steven M.

In: Memory and Cognition, Vol. 28, No. 1, 01.01.2000, p. 18-27.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schwartz, BL, Travis, DM, Castro, AM & Smith, SM 2000, 'The phenomenology of real and illusory tip-of-the-tongue states', Memory and Cognition, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 18-27.
Schwartz BL, Travis DM, Castro AM, Smith SM. The phenomenology of real and illusory tip-of-the-tongue states. Memory and Cognition. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):18-27.
Schwartz, Bennett L. ; Travis, Donald M. ; Castro, Anthony M. ; Smith, Steven M. / The phenomenology of real and illusory tip-of-the-tongue states. In: Memory and Cognition. 2000 ; Vol. 28, No. 1. pp. 18-27.
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