The outflow-rainband relationship induced by environmental flow around tropical cyclones

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4 Scopus citations


This study investigates the role of the asymmetric interaction between the tropical cyclone (TC) and the environmental flow in governing the TC inner-core asymmetric structure. Motivated by the limitations of bulk measures of vertical wind shear in representing the complete environmental flow, the TC outflow is used as a focus for the asymmetric interaction. By analyzing an idealized numerical simulation, it is demonstrated that parcels can go directly from the asymmetric rainband to the upper-level outflow. The relatively large vertical mass flux in the rainband region also suggests that the asymmetric rainband is an important source of the outflow. In a simulation that suppresses convection by reducing the water vapor within the rainband region, the upper-level outflow is weakened, further supporting the hypothesis that the rainband and outflow are directly connected. Finally, it is demonstrated that the asymmetric outflow and the outer rainband are coupled through the descending inflow below the outflow. Some of the main characteristics of the outflow-rainband relationship are also supported by a real-case numerical simulation of Hurricane Bill (2009). The relationship is potentially useful for understanding and predicting the evolution of the TC inner-core structure during the interaction with the large-scale environmental flow.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1845-1863
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of the Atmospheric Sciences
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science


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