The origin of the local 1/4-keV X-ray flux in both charge exchange and a hot bubble

Massimiliano Galeazzi, M. Chiao, M. R. Collier, T. Cravens, D. Koutroumpa, K. D. Kuntz, R. Lallement, S. T. Lepri, D. McCammon, K. Morgan, F. S. Porter, I. P. Robertson, S. L. Snowden, N. E. Thomas, Y. Uprety, E. Ursino, B. M. Walsh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The solar neighbourhood is the closest and most easily studied sample of the Galactic interstellar medium, an understanding of which is essential formodels of star formation and galaxy evolution.Observations of an unexpectedly intense diffuse flux of easily absorbed 1/4-kiloelectronvolt X-rays 1,2, coupled with the discovery that interstellar space within about a hundredparsecs of the Sun is almost completely devoid of cool absorbing gas3, led to a picture of a 'local cavity' filled with X-ray-emitting hot gas, dubbed the local hot bubble4-6. This model was recently challenged by suggestions that the emission could instead be readily produced within the Solar System by heavy solar-wind ions exchanging electrons with neutralHandHein interplanetary space7-11, potentially removing themajor piece of evidence for the local existence of million-degree gas within the Galactic disk12-15. Here we report observations showing that the total solarwind charge-exchange contribution is approximately 40 per cent of the 1/4-keV flux in the Galactic plane. The fact that the measured flux is not dominated by charge exchange supports the notion of a million-degree hot bubble extending about a hundred parsecs from the Sun.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-173
Number of pages3
JournalNature
Volume512
Issue number7513
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 14 2014

Fingerprint

charge exchange
bubbles
sun
ion exchanging
interstellar space
solar neighborhood
x rays
high temperature gases
solar system
solar wind
suggestion
star formation
galaxies
cavities
gases
electrons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Galeazzi, M., Chiao, M., Collier, M. R., Cravens, T., Koutroumpa, D., Kuntz, K. D., ... Walsh, B. M. (2014). The origin of the local 1/4-keV X-ray flux in both charge exchange and a hot bubble. Nature, 512(7513), 171-173. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13525

The origin of the local 1/4-keV X-ray flux in both charge exchange and a hot bubble. / Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Chiao, M.; Collier, M. R.; Cravens, T.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.; Lepri, S. T.; McCammon, D.; Morgan, K.; Porter, F. S.; Robertson, I. P.; Snowden, S. L.; Thomas, N. E.; Uprety, Y.; Ursino, E.; Walsh, B. M.

In: Nature, Vol. 512, No. 7513, 14.08.2014, p. 171-173.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Galeazzi, M, Chiao, M, Collier, MR, Cravens, T, Koutroumpa, D, Kuntz, KD, Lallement, R, Lepri, ST, McCammon, D, Morgan, K, Porter, FS, Robertson, IP, Snowden, SL, Thomas, NE, Uprety, Y, Ursino, E & Walsh, BM 2014, 'The origin of the local 1/4-keV X-ray flux in both charge exchange and a hot bubble', Nature, vol. 512, no. 7513, pp. 171-173. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13525
Galeazzi M, Chiao M, Collier MR, Cravens T, Koutroumpa D, Kuntz KD et al. The origin of the local 1/4-keV X-ray flux in both charge exchange and a hot bubble. Nature. 2014 Aug 14;512(7513):171-173. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13525
Galeazzi, Massimiliano ; Chiao, M. ; Collier, M. R. ; Cravens, T. ; Koutroumpa, D. ; Kuntz, K. D. ; Lallement, R. ; Lepri, S. T. ; McCammon, D. ; Morgan, K. ; Porter, F. S. ; Robertson, I. P. ; Snowden, S. L. ; Thomas, N. E. ; Uprety, Y. ; Ursino, E. ; Walsh, B. M. / The origin of the local 1/4-keV X-ray flux in both charge exchange and a hot bubble. In: Nature. 2014 ; Vol. 512, No. 7513. pp. 171-173.
@article{9ea18d474d00450588b9009878ce1eca,
title = "The origin of the local 1/4-keV X-ray flux in both charge exchange and a hot bubble",
abstract = "The solar neighbourhood is the closest and most easily studied sample of the Galactic interstellar medium, an understanding of which is essential formodels of star formation and galaxy evolution.Observations of an unexpectedly intense diffuse flux of easily absorbed 1/4-kiloelectronvolt X-rays 1,2, coupled with the discovery that interstellar space within about a hundredparsecs of the Sun is almost completely devoid of cool absorbing gas3, led to a picture of a 'local cavity' filled with X-ray-emitting hot gas, dubbed the local hot bubble4-6. This model was recently challenged by suggestions that the emission could instead be readily produced within the Solar System by heavy solar-wind ions exchanging electrons with neutralHandHein interplanetary space7-11, potentially removing themajor piece of evidence for the local existence of million-degree gas within the Galactic disk12-15. Here we report observations showing that the total solarwind charge-exchange contribution is approximately 40 per cent of the 1/4-keV flux in the Galactic plane. The fact that the measured flux is not dominated by charge exchange supports the notion of a million-degree hot bubble extending about a hundred parsecs from the Sun.",
author = "Massimiliano Galeazzi and M. Chiao and Collier, {M. R.} and T. Cravens and D. Koutroumpa and Kuntz, {K. D.} and R. Lallement and Lepri, {S. T.} and D. McCammon and K. Morgan and Porter, {F. S.} and Robertson, {I. P.} and Snowden, {S. L.} and Thomas, {N. E.} and Y. Uprety and E. Ursino and Walsh, {B. M.}",
year = "2014",
month = "8",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1038/nature13525",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "512",
pages = "171--173",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7513",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The origin of the local 1/4-keV X-ray flux in both charge exchange and a hot bubble

AU - Galeazzi, Massimiliano

AU - Chiao, M.

AU - Collier, M. R.

AU - Cravens, T.

AU - Koutroumpa, D.

AU - Kuntz, K. D.

AU - Lallement, R.

AU - Lepri, S. T.

AU - McCammon, D.

AU - Morgan, K.

AU - Porter, F. S.

AU - Robertson, I. P.

AU - Snowden, S. L.

AU - Thomas, N. E.

AU - Uprety, Y.

AU - Ursino, E.

AU - Walsh, B. M.

PY - 2014/8/14

Y1 - 2014/8/14

N2 - The solar neighbourhood is the closest and most easily studied sample of the Galactic interstellar medium, an understanding of which is essential formodels of star formation and galaxy evolution.Observations of an unexpectedly intense diffuse flux of easily absorbed 1/4-kiloelectronvolt X-rays 1,2, coupled with the discovery that interstellar space within about a hundredparsecs of the Sun is almost completely devoid of cool absorbing gas3, led to a picture of a 'local cavity' filled with X-ray-emitting hot gas, dubbed the local hot bubble4-6. This model was recently challenged by suggestions that the emission could instead be readily produced within the Solar System by heavy solar-wind ions exchanging electrons with neutralHandHein interplanetary space7-11, potentially removing themajor piece of evidence for the local existence of million-degree gas within the Galactic disk12-15. Here we report observations showing that the total solarwind charge-exchange contribution is approximately 40 per cent of the 1/4-keV flux in the Galactic plane. The fact that the measured flux is not dominated by charge exchange supports the notion of a million-degree hot bubble extending about a hundred parsecs from the Sun.

AB - The solar neighbourhood is the closest and most easily studied sample of the Galactic interstellar medium, an understanding of which is essential formodels of star formation and galaxy evolution.Observations of an unexpectedly intense diffuse flux of easily absorbed 1/4-kiloelectronvolt X-rays 1,2, coupled with the discovery that interstellar space within about a hundredparsecs of the Sun is almost completely devoid of cool absorbing gas3, led to a picture of a 'local cavity' filled with X-ray-emitting hot gas, dubbed the local hot bubble4-6. This model was recently challenged by suggestions that the emission could instead be readily produced within the Solar System by heavy solar-wind ions exchanging electrons with neutralHandHein interplanetary space7-11, potentially removing themajor piece of evidence for the local existence of million-degree gas within the Galactic disk12-15. Here we report observations showing that the total solarwind charge-exchange contribution is approximately 40 per cent of the 1/4-keV flux in the Galactic plane. The fact that the measured flux is not dominated by charge exchange supports the notion of a million-degree hot bubble extending about a hundred parsecs from the Sun.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84906225459&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84906225459&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/nature13525

DO - 10.1038/nature13525

M3 - Article

VL - 512

SP - 171

EP - 173

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7513

ER -