The nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex is a major regulator of gene expression involved in pluripotency, lineage commitment, and corticogenesis. This important complex is composed of seven different proteins, with mutations in CHD3, CHD4, and GATAD2B being associated with neurodevelopmental disorders presenting with macrocephaly and intellectual disability similar to other overgrowth and intellectual disability (OGID) syndromes. Pathogenic variants in CHD3 and CHD4 primarily involve disruption of enzymatic function. GATAD2B variants include loss-of-function mutations that alter protein dosage and missense variants that involve either of two conserved domains (CR1 and CR2) known to interact with other NuRD proteins. In addition to macrocephaly and intellectual disability, CHD3 variants are associated with inguinal hernias and apraxia of speech; whereas CHD4 variants are associated with skeletal anomalies, deafness, and cardiac defects. GATAD2B-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (GAND) has phenotypic overlap with both of these disorders. Of note, structural models of NuRD indicate that CHD3 and CHD4 require direct contact with the GATAD2B-CR2 domain to interact with the rest of the complex. Therefore, the phenotypic overlaps of CHD3- and CHD4-related disorders with GAND are consistent with a loss in the ability of GATAD2B to recruit CHD3 or CHD4 to the complex. The shared features of these neurodevelopmental disorders may represent a new class of OGID syndrome: the NuRDopathies.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2019|
- NuRD complex
ASJC Scopus subject areas