The neurobiological toll of child abuse and neglect

Gretchen N. Neigh, Charles F. Gillespie, Charles B. Nemeroff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

140 Scopus citations

Abstract

Exposure to interpersonal violence or abuse affects the physical and emotional well-being of affected individuals. In particular, exposure to trauma during development increases the risk of psychiatric and other medical disorders beyond the risks associated with adult violence exposure. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a major mediating pathway of the stress response, contribute to the long-standing effects of early life trauma. Although early life trauma elevates the risk of psychiatric and medical disease, not all exposed individuals demonstrate altered HPA axis physiology, suggesting that genetic variation influences the consequences of trauma exposure. In addition, the effects of abuse may extend beyond the immediate victim into subsequent generations as a consequence of epigenetic effects transmitted directly to offspring and/or behavioral changes in affected individuals. Recognition of the biological consequences and transgenerational impact of violence and abuse has critical importance for both disease research and public health policy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)389-410
Number of pages22
JournalTrauma, Violence, and Abuse
Volume10
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Abuse
  • Corticotrophin releasing factor
  • Cortisol
  • Development
  • Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Applied Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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