The Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale (MMIS) measures an individual's adaptation and internalization of a culture's norms about how men should act. This study extends previous research on masculinity ideology by generating a scale representing multiple cultural perspectives using 190 Chilean, 283 Anglo-American, and 296 African-American undergraduates. The psychometric properties of the MMIS were established using principal components analysis, convergent validity tests, and internal-consistency and test-retest reliability. Two components consistent across cultures emerged: Hypermasculine Posturing and Achievement. In addition, there were culturally-specific components: Toughness, Pose, and Responsibility among Chileans; Sensitivity among Anglo-Americans; and Sexual Responsibility among African-Americans. Results indicate that the MMIS can be useful for examining a variety of research questions relating to culture and masculinity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Gender Studies
- Social Psychology
- Developmental and Educational Psychology