The morphological and physiological properties of a regenerating synapse in the C.N.S. of the leech

Kenneth J. Muller, Salvatore Carbonetto

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97 Scopus citations


Regeneration of an electrical synapse between particular interneurons in the medicinal leech was traced physiologically and morphologically using intracellular recording and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injection. The synapse between S-cell interneurons lies in the connective midway between segmental ganglia, so crushing near 1 ganglion severs only 1 S-cell's axon. The severed distal stump remains connected to the adjacent uninjured S-cell and continues for weeks to conduct impulses. The injured cell regenerates, while its uninjured 'target' neuron in the next ganglion does not grow. After the sprouts of the regenerating neuron cross the crush, 1 or a few branches grow along the surviving distal stump toward the original synapse. After about 1 mth when the region of original synapse has been reached, regenerating neurons form electrical junctions and stop growing. Thereafter electrical coupling improves in stages. Within 2 mth the regenerated neuron attains full caliber, the stump degenerates and function is normal. In some instances within days or weeks of crushing, the regenerating neuron forms a basket of synapses upon its severed distal stump and then continues growing to synapse with the target. When this occurs, electrical coupling and subsequent impulse transmission between S-cells rapidly resumes. These experiments indicate that the regenerating neuron is guided to its proper synaptic target by recognizing and following its severed distal stump. Sometimes the distal stump itself becomes an intermediate synaptic target.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)485-516
Number of pages32
JournalJournal of Comparative Neurology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 1979
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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