The morphogenesis of the middle and external ear

T. Van De Water, P. F.A. Maderson, T. F. Jaskoll

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


If data on the normal morphogenesis of any system are to be used to explain the etiology of congenital defects therein, a complete modern anatomic description is a sine qua non. Where appropriate detail is lacking, it must be provided before experiments can be planned. In certain cases, and this is especially true of the middle ear, we must also be aware that problems in the interpretation of experimental data could arise if the evolutionary relationships of the animal models used are inadequately understood. We will (a) review germane current evolutionary interpretations of interrelationships among lower tetrapods, (b) review advances in our knowledge of the morphology of otic development, (c) review the results of past and recent experimental studies on development, and (d) attempt to relate the available data to our current knowledge of cell and tissue interactions in development. We will show how these data contribute to our understanding of developmental anomalies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-180
Number of pages34
JournalBirth Defects: Original Article Series
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1980

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Genetics(clinical)


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