The MLQ revisited psychometric properties and recommendations

Manuel J. Tejeda, Terri A. Scandura, Rajnandini Pillai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

169 Scopus citations


The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) is one of the most widely used instruments to measure transformational and transactional leader behaviors in the organizational sciences. A review of this literature reveals inconsistent research findings, which may be due to the psychometric properties of the MLQ. Data from four samples of managers were employed to investigate the underlying factor structure of the MLQ. In independent samples, the data fail to support the hypothesized structure of the MLQ in first- and second-order confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). However, a reduced set of items from the MLQ appear to show preliminary evidence of construct and predictive validity. Implications for future research and theoretical development are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-52
Number of pages22
JournalLeadership Quarterly
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Applied Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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