The mechanisms and costs of physiological and toxicological acclimation to waterborne silver in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

F. Galvez, C. M. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 5 μg/l silver (Ag, as AgNO3) for 23 days. Specific growth rate, cumulative food consumption, food-conversion efficiency, and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) were significantly reduced during 5 μg/l Ag exposure, demonstrating a physiological cost of silver acclimation. Only the 5 μg/l Ag treatment had significant cumulative mortality (5.2%). Fish were most susceptible to silver on days 5 and 15. Exposure to 5 μg/l Ag significantly lowered plasma Na+ and Cl- on days 5 and 10, but plasma ion concentration recovered thereafter. Unidirectional Na+ uptake and gill Na/K-ATPase activity were significantly inhibited by 3 and 5 μg/l Ag exposure. Na+ uptake was inhibited by 3 μg/l Ag at day 5 alone, whereas the effects at the highest Ag exposure persisted until day 15. Gill Na/K-ATPase was inhibited on day 5 in both the 3 and 5 μg/l Ag treatments but increased to approx. 1.5 times of control levels by day 23. Only the 3 and 5 μg/l Ag treatments produced toxicological acclimation (at least twofold elevations in 168-h LC50 values in fish subsampled on days 15 and 23). We conclude that physiological acclimation results from compensatory changes in Na+ transport at the gills, and that these changes may eventually lead to toxicological acclimation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)587-597
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Volume172
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2002

Fingerprint

Oncorhynchus mykiss
Acclimatization
Silver
acclimation
silver
Toxicology
rainbow
Costs and Cost Analysis
gills
Fish
sodium-potassium-exchanging ATPase
Adenosine Triphosphatases
cost
Plasmas
Costs
Fishes
Level control
uptake mechanisms
plasma
Food

Keywords

  • Metabolic costs
  • Na/K-ATPase
  • Rainbow trout
  • Silver acclimation
  • Unidirectional influx

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "The mechanisms and costs of physiological and toxicological acclimation to waterborne silver in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)",
abstract = "Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 5 μg/l silver (Ag, as AgNO3) for 23 days. Specific growth rate, cumulative food consumption, food-conversion efficiency, and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) were significantly reduced during 5 μg/l Ag exposure, demonstrating a physiological cost of silver acclimation. Only the 5 μg/l Ag treatment had significant cumulative mortality (5.2{\%}). Fish were most susceptible to silver on days 5 and 15. Exposure to 5 μg/l Ag significantly lowered plasma Na+ and Cl- on days 5 and 10, but plasma ion concentration recovered thereafter. Unidirectional Na+ uptake and gill Na/K-ATPase activity were significantly inhibited by 3 and 5 μg/l Ag exposure. Na+ uptake was inhibited by 3 μg/l Ag at day 5 alone, whereas the effects at the highest Ag exposure persisted until day 15. Gill Na/K-ATPase was inhibited on day 5 in both the 3 and 5 μg/l Ag treatments but increased to approx. 1.5 times of control levels by day 23. Only the 3 and 5 μg/l Ag treatments produced toxicological acclimation (at least twofold elevations in 168-h LC50 values in fish subsampled on days 15 and 23). We conclude that physiological acclimation results from compensatory changes in Na+ transport at the gills, and that these changes may eventually lead to toxicological acclimation.",
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T1 - The mechanisms and costs of physiological and toxicological acclimation to waterborne silver in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

AU - Galvez, F.

AU - Wood, C. M.

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N2 - Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 5 μg/l silver (Ag, as AgNO3) for 23 days. Specific growth rate, cumulative food consumption, food-conversion efficiency, and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) were significantly reduced during 5 μg/l Ag exposure, demonstrating a physiological cost of silver acclimation. Only the 5 μg/l Ag treatment had significant cumulative mortality (5.2%). Fish were most susceptible to silver on days 5 and 15. Exposure to 5 μg/l Ag significantly lowered plasma Na+ and Cl- on days 5 and 10, but plasma ion concentration recovered thereafter. Unidirectional Na+ uptake and gill Na/K-ATPase activity were significantly inhibited by 3 and 5 μg/l Ag exposure. Na+ uptake was inhibited by 3 μg/l Ag at day 5 alone, whereas the effects at the highest Ag exposure persisted until day 15. Gill Na/K-ATPase was inhibited on day 5 in both the 3 and 5 μg/l Ag treatments but increased to approx. 1.5 times of control levels by day 23. Only the 3 and 5 μg/l Ag treatments produced toxicological acclimation (at least twofold elevations in 168-h LC50 values in fish subsampled on days 15 and 23). We conclude that physiological acclimation results from compensatory changes in Na+ transport at the gills, and that these changes may eventually lead to toxicological acclimation.

AB - Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 5 μg/l silver (Ag, as AgNO3) for 23 days. Specific growth rate, cumulative food consumption, food-conversion efficiency, and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) were significantly reduced during 5 μg/l Ag exposure, demonstrating a physiological cost of silver acclimation. Only the 5 μg/l Ag treatment had significant cumulative mortality (5.2%). Fish were most susceptible to silver on days 5 and 15. Exposure to 5 μg/l Ag significantly lowered plasma Na+ and Cl- on days 5 and 10, but plasma ion concentration recovered thereafter. Unidirectional Na+ uptake and gill Na/K-ATPase activity were significantly inhibited by 3 and 5 μg/l Ag exposure. Na+ uptake was inhibited by 3 μg/l Ag at day 5 alone, whereas the effects at the highest Ag exposure persisted until day 15. Gill Na/K-ATPase was inhibited on day 5 in both the 3 and 5 μg/l Ag treatments but increased to approx. 1.5 times of control levels by day 23. Only the 3 and 5 μg/l Ag treatments produced toxicological acclimation (at least twofold elevations in 168-h LC50 values in fish subsampled on days 15 and 23). We conclude that physiological acclimation results from compensatory changes in Na+ transport at the gills, and that these changes may eventually lead to toxicological acclimation.

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KW - Unidirectional influx

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