The Integrator complex at the crossroad of coding and noncoding RNA

Nina Kirstein, Helena Gomes Dos Santos, Ezra Blumenthal, Ramin Shiekhattar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Genomic transcription is fundamental to all organisms. In metazoans, the Integrator complex is required for endonucleolytic processing of noncoding RNAs, regulation of RNA polymerase II pause–release, and premature transcription attenuation at coding genes. Recent insights into the structural composition and evolution of Integrator subunits have informed our understanding of its biochemical functionality. Moreover, studies in multiple model organisms point to an essential function of Integrator in signaling response and cellular development, highlighting a key role in neuronal differentiation. Indeed, alterations in Integrator complex subunits have been identified in patients with neurodevelopmental diseases and cancer. Taken together, we propose that Integrator is a central regulator of transcriptional processes and that its evolution reflects genomic complexity in regulatory elements and chromatin architecture.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-43
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in Cell Biology
StatePublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Cancer
  • INTS evolution
  • Integrator complex
  • Neurodevelopmental diseases
  • RNA processing
  • Transcription regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology


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