Lack of insulin production or abnormalities affecting insulin secretion are key to the development of almost all forms of diabetes, including the common type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes and the more rare forms of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Because insulin has such a central role in the pathogenesis of both forms of diabetes, the insulin gene (INS) has always been considered a candidate susceptibility gene. A number of studies have shown that the allelic variation and parent-of-origin effects affect the transmission and expression of the insulin gene in pancreatic β-cells and extra-pancreatic tissues. These observations have led to the formulation of new hypotheses to explain the biological mechanisms by which functional differences in the expression of the insulin gene may contribute to diabetes susceptibility.
- Transcription factors
- type 1 diabetes
- type 2 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism