Objective: To determine if recently found disparities in prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) among Mexican and Puerto Rican men remained true in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP), where the true grade and extent of cancer are known and can be accounted for. Materials and Methods: Men diagnosed with localized-regional prostate cancer who had undergone RP as primary treatment were identified (N = 180,794). Patients were divided into the following racial and ethnic groups: non-Hispanic white (NHW) (n = 135,358), non-Hispanic black (NHB) (n = 21,882), Hispanic or Latino (n = 15,559), and Asian American or Pacific Islander (n = 7995). Hispanic or Latino men were further categorized into the following subgroups: Mexican (n = 3323) and South or Central American, excluding Brazilian (n = 1296), Puerto Rican (n = 409), and Cuban (n = 218). A multivariable analysis was conducted using competing risk regression in the prediction of PCSM. Results: This analysis revealed hidden disparities in surgical outcomes for prostate cancer. In the multivariable analysis, Hispanic or Latino men (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, P = .207) did not show a significant difference in PCSM compared with NHW men. When breaking Hispanic or Latino men into their country of origin or ancestry, Puerto Rican men were found to have significantly worse PCSM than NHW men (HR = 2.55, P = .004) and NHB men (HR = 2.33, P = .016). Conclusion: Our findings reveal higher rates of PCSM for Puerto Rican men after RP than for both NHW and NHB men. At a minimum, these findings need further validation and should be considered in the screening and management of these men.
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