The incidence and risk factors for developing depression after being diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease

A cohort study

A. J. Panara, A. J. Yarur, B. Rieders, S. Proksell, Amar R Deshpande, Maria T Abreu, Daniel A Sussman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Studies have found that depression is more frequent in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than the general population. Clinicians are now trying to pinpoint risk factors for psychological impairment in the IBD population. Aims To examine the demographic and phenotypic variables associated with the development of depression among a diverse cohort of IBD patients. We also sought to describe psychotropic therapy prescribed to IBD patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study including patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) without a prior psychiatric diagnosis and followed in the gastroenterology clinics of the private university hospital and public safety net hospital at a large academic centre in Miami (Florida). Predictive variables included demographic characteristics, IBD phenotype, exposure to IBD medications, history of a surgical stoma or seton placement, extra-intestinal manifestations, laboratory indices, aggressive disease and disease activity (based on imaging and endoscopic parameters). Proportional hazard regression models and stepwise Cox regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results Independent predictors of depression were female gender [HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1-1.7), P = 0.01], aggressive disease [HR: 1.4 (95% CI: 1.02-1.9), P = 0.03] and active disease [HR: 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0), P = 0.04]. In the group that did develop a depressive disorder, 65% received pharmacologic therapy with one or more psychotropic agents. Conclusions We found female gender, aggressive disease and increased endoscopic/radiological activity to be independently associated with the development of depression in inflammatory bowel disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)802-810
Number of pages9
JournalAlimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume39
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

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Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Cohort Studies
Depression
Incidence
Surgical Stomas
Safety-net Providers
Demography
Private Hospitals
Gastroenterology
Depressive Disorder
Ulcerative Colitis
Proportional Hazards Models
Mental Disorders
Crohn Disease
Population
Retrospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Psychology
Phenotype
Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

The incidence and risk factors for developing depression after being diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease : A cohort study. / Panara, A. J.; Yarur, A. J.; Rieders, B.; Proksell, S.; Deshpande, Amar R; Abreu, Maria T; Sussman, Daniel A.

In: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol. 39, No. 8, 01.01.2014, p. 802-810.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - Background Studies have found that depression is more frequent in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than the general population. Clinicians are now trying to pinpoint risk factors for psychological impairment in the IBD population. Aims To examine the demographic and phenotypic variables associated with the development of depression among a diverse cohort of IBD patients. We also sought to describe psychotropic therapy prescribed to IBD patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study including patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) without a prior psychiatric diagnosis and followed in the gastroenterology clinics of the private university hospital and public safety net hospital at a large academic centre in Miami (Florida). Predictive variables included demographic characteristics, IBD phenotype, exposure to IBD medications, history of a surgical stoma or seton placement, extra-intestinal manifestations, laboratory indices, aggressive disease and disease activity (based on imaging and endoscopic parameters). Proportional hazard regression models and stepwise Cox regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results Independent predictors of depression were female gender [HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1-1.7), P = 0.01], aggressive disease [HR: 1.4 (95% CI: 1.02-1.9), P = 0.03] and active disease [HR: 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0), P = 0.04]. In the group that did develop a depressive disorder, 65% received pharmacologic therapy with one or more psychotropic agents. Conclusions We found female gender, aggressive disease and increased endoscopic/radiological activity to be independently associated with the development of depression in inflammatory bowel disease.

AB - Background Studies have found that depression is more frequent in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than the general population. Clinicians are now trying to pinpoint risk factors for psychological impairment in the IBD population. Aims To examine the demographic and phenotypic variables associated with the development of depression among a diverse cohort of IBD patients. We also sought to describe psychotropic therapy prescribed to IBD patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study including patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) without a prior psychiatric diagnosis and followed in the gastroenterology clinics of the private university hospital and public safety net hospital at a large academic centre in Miami (Florida). Predictive variables included demographic characteristics, IBD phenotype, exposure to IBD medications, history of a surgical stoma or seton placement, extra-intestinal manifestations, laboratory indices, aggressive disease and disease activity (based on imaging and endoscopic parameters). Proportional hazard regression models and stepwise Cox regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results Independent predictors of depression were female gender [HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1-1.7), P = 0.01], aggressive disease [HR: 1.4 (95% CI: 1.02-1.9), P = 0.03] and active disease [HR: 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0), P = 0.04]. In the group that did develop a depressive disorder, 65% received pharmacologic therapy with one or more psychotropic agents. Conclusions We found female gender, aggressive disease and increased endoscopic/radiological activity to be independently associated with the development of depression in inflammatory bowel disease.

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