Cardiac hypertrophy is a relatively common complication seen in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Moreover, cardiac hypertrophy is even more frequently seen in patients with ESRD who have an arteriovenous (AV) access. There has been substantial evidence pertaining to the effects of AV access creation on the heart structure and function. Similarly, there is increasing evidence on the effects of AV access closure, flow reduction, transplantation, and immunosuppressive medication on both endpoints. In this review, we present the evidence available in the literature on these topics and open the dialog for further research in this interesting field.
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