The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source

Ulrich Ohnemus, Murat Uenalan, José Inzunza, Jan Åke Gustafsson, Ralf Paus

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

116 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

For many decades, androgens have dominated endocrine research in hair growth control. Androgen metabolism and the androgen receptor currently are the key targets for systemic, pharmacological hair growth control in clinical medicine. However, ithaslongbeenknownthat estrogens also profoundly alter hair follicle growth and cycling by binding to locally expressed high-affinity estrogen receptors (ERs). Besides altering the transcription of genes with estrogen-responsive elements, 17β-estradiol (E2) also modifies androgen metabolism within distinct subunits of the pilosebaceous unit (i.e., hair follicle and sebaceous gland). The latter displays prominent aromatase activity, the key enzyme for androgen conversion to E2, and is both an estrogen source and target. Here, we chart the recent renaissance of estrogen research in hair research; explain why the hair follicle offers an ideal, clinically relevant test system for studying the role of sex steroids, their receptors, and interactions in neuroectodermal-mesodermal interaction systems in general; and illustrate how it can be exploited to identify novel functions and signaling cross talks of ER-mediated signaling. Emphasizing the long-underestimated complexity and species-, gender-, and site-dependence of E2-induced biological effects on the hair follicle, we explore targets for pharmacological intervention in clinically relevant hair cycle manipulation, ranging from androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism via telogen effluvium to chemotherapy-induced alopecia. While defining major open questions, unsolved clinical challenges, and particularly promising research avenues in this area, we argue that the time has come to pay estrogen-mediated signaling the full attention it deserves in future endocrinological therapy of common hair growth disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)677-706
Number of pages30
JournalEndocrine Reviews
Volume27
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 24 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Hair Follicle
Estrogens
Androgens
Alopecia
Research
Estrogen Receptors
Growth
Pharmacology
Growth Disorders
Sebaceous Glands
Hirsutism
Aromatase
Steroid Receptors
Clinical Medicine
Androgen Receptors
Estradiol
Drug Therapy
Enzymes
Genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Ohnemus, U., Uenalan, M., Inzunza, J., Gustafsson, J. Å., & Paus, R. (2006). The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source. Endocrine Reviews, 27(6), 677-706. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2006-0020

The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source. / Ohnemus, Ulrich; Uenalan, Murat; Inzunza, José; Gustafsson, Jan Åke; Paus, Ralf.

In: Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 27, No. 6, 24.10.2006, p. 677-706.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Ohnemus, U, Uenalan, M, Inzunza, J, Gustafsson, JÅ & Paus, R 2006, 'The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source', Endocrine Reviews, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 677-706. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2006-0020
Ohnemus U, Uenalan M, Inzunza J, Gustafsson JÅ, Paus R. The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source. Endocrine Reviews. 2006 Oct 24;27(6):677-706. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2006-0020
Ohnemus, Ulrich ; Uenalan, Murat ; Inzunza, José ; Gustafsson, Jan Åke ; Paus, Ralf. / The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source. In: Endocrine Reviews. 2006 ; Vol. 27, No. 6. pp. 677-706.
@article{d5082fbefe2e4d6491825ae3cd54a271,
title = "The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source",
abstract = "For many decades, androgens have dominated endocrine research in hair growth control. Androgen metabolism and the androgen receptor currently are the key targets for systemic, pharmacological hair growth control in clinical medicine. However, ithaslongbeenknownthat estrogens also profoundly alter hair follicle growth and cycling by binding to locally expressed high-affinity estrogen receptors (ERs). Besides altering the transcription of genes with estrogen-responsive elements, 17β-estradiol (E2) also modifies androgen metabolism within distinct subunits of the pilosebaceous unit (i.e., hair follicle and sebaceous gland). The latter displays prominent aromatase activity, the key enzyme for androgen conversion to E2, and is both an estrogen source and target. Here, we chart the recent renaissance of estrogen research in hair research; explain why the hair follicle offers an ideal, clinically relevant test system for studying the role of sex steroids, their receptors, and interactions in neuroectodermal-mesodermal interaction systems in general; and illustrate how it can be exploited to identify novel functions and signaling cross talks of ER-mediated signaling. Emphasizing the long-underestimated complexity and species-, gender-, and site-dependence of E2-induced biological effects on the hair follicle, we explore targets for pharmacological intervention in clinically relevant hair cycle manipulation, ranging from androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism via telogen effluvium to chemotherapy-induced alopecia. While defining major open questions, unsolved clinical challenges, and particularly promising research avenues in this area, we argue that the time has come to pay estrogen-mediated signaling the full attention it deserves in future endocrinological therapy of common hair growth disorders.",
author = "Ulrich Ohnemus and Murat Uenalan and Jos{\'e} Inzunza and Gustafsson, {Jan {\AA}ke} and Ralf Paus",
year = "2006",
month = "10",
day = "24",
doi = "10.1210/er.2006-0020",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
pages = "677--706",
journal = "Endocrine Reviews",
issn = "0163-769X",
publisher = "The Endocrine Society",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source

AU - Ohnemus, Ulrich

AU - Uenalan, Murat

AU - Inzunza, José

AU - Gustafsson, Jan Åke

AU - Paus, Ralf

PY - 2006/10/24

Y1 - 2006/10/24

N2 - For many decades, androgens have dominated endocrine research in hair growth control. Androgen metabolism and the androgen receptor currently are the key targets for systemic, pharmacological hair growth control in clinical medicine. However, ithaslongbeenknownthat estrogens also profoundly alter hair follicle growth and cycling by binding to locally expressed high-affinity estrogen receptors (ERs). Besides altering the transcription of genes with estrogen-responsive elements, 17β-estradiol (E2) also modifies androgen metabolism within distinct subunits of the pilosebaceous unit (i.e., hair follicle and sebaceous gland). The latter displays prominent aromatase activity, the key enzyme for androgen conversion to E2, and is both an estrogen source and target. Here, we chart the recent renaissance of estrogen research in hair research; explain why the hair follicle offers an ideal, clinically relevant test system for studying the role of sex steroids, their receptors, and interactions in neuroectodermal-mesodermal interaction systems in general; and illustrate how it can be exploited to identify novel functions and signaling cross talks of ER-mediated signaling. Emphasizing the long-underestimated complexity and species-, gender-, and site-dependence of E2-induced biological effects on the hair follicle, we explore targets for pharmacological intervention in clinically relevant hair cycle manipulation, ranging from androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism via telogen effluvium to chemotherapy-induced alopecia. While defining major open questions, unsolved clinical challenges, and particularly promising research avenues in this area, we argue that the time has come to pay estrogen-mediated signaling the full attention it deserves in future endocrinological therapy of common hair growth disorders.

AB - For many decades, androgens have dominated endocrine research in hair growth control. Androgen metabolism and the androgen receptor currently are the key targets for systemic, pharmacological hair growth control in clinical medicine. However, ithaslongbeenknownthat estrogens also profoundly alter hair follicle growth and cycling by binding to locally expressed high-affinity estrogen receptors (ERs). Besides altering the transcription of genes with estrogen-responsive elements, 17β-estradiol (E2) also modifies androgen metabolism within distinct subunits of the pilosebaceous unit (i.e., hair follicle and sebaceous gland). The latter displays prominent aromatase activity, the key enzyme for androgen conversion to E2, and is both an estrogen source and target. Here, we chart the recent renaissance of estrogen research in hair research; explain why the hair follicle offers an ideal, clinically relevant test system for studying the role of sex steroids, their receptors, and interactions in neuroectodermal-mesodermal interaction systems in general; and illustrate how it can be exploited to identify novel functions and signaling cross talks of ER-mediated signaling. Emphasizing the long-underestimated complexity and species-, gender-, and site-dependence of E2-induced biological effects on the hair follicle, we explore targets for pharmacological intervention in clinically relevant hair cycle manipulation, ranging from androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism via telogen effluvium to chemotherapy-induced alopecia. While defining major open questions, unsolved clinical challenges, and particularly promising research avenues in this area, we argue that the time has come to pay estrogen-mediated signaling the full attention it deserves in future endocrinological therapy of common hair growth disorders.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33750096487&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33750096487&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1210/er.2006-0020

DO - 10.1210/er.2006-0020

M3 - Review article

C2 - 16877675

AN - SCOPUS:33750096487

VL - 27

SP - 677

EP - 706

JO - Endocrine Reviews

JF - Endocrine Reviews

SN - 0163-769X

IS - 6

ER -