The effects of exercise withdrawal on mood and inflammatory cytokine responses in humans

Lydia Poole, Mark Hamer, Andrew Wawrzyniak, Andrew Steptoe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mechanisms underlying the relationship between exercise and mood are not well understood. This study sought to investigate the role of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines and autonomic balance in determining the impact of exercise withdrawal on negative mood. Healthy men and women who regularly exercised (N=26, mean age=25.5 years, SD=4.5 years) were randomised to exercise withdrawal or exercise maintenance for 2 weeks. Protocol adherence was monitored using accelerometers. Inflammatory markers from plasma (interleukin-6, IL-6; tumour necrosis factor-alpha; interleukin-10; and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist), heart-rate variability (HRV) and measures of mood (General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS)) were assessed at study entry and at 2-week follow-up. Exercise withdrawal resulted in significant increases in negative mood over time on both the GHQ (p=0.028) and the POMS (p=0.005). Following the intervention, IL-6 concentration was lower in the exercise withdrawal than exercise maintenance condition (p=0.05). No intervention effects were observed for other cytokines or HRV. The mood changes were significantly related to changes in IL-6 concentration (β=-0.50, p=0.011), indicating that reduction in IL-6 was related to increased negative mood. Our results are consistent with positive effects of exercise on mental health, but further research on inflammatory pathways is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)439-447
Number of pages9
JournalStress
Volume14
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Exercise
Cytokines
Interleukin-6
Heart Rate
Maintenance
Interleukin-1 Receptors
Health
Interleukin-10
Mental Health
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Research
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • anti-inflammatory cytokines
  • Exercise
  • heart-rate variability
  • interleukin-6
  • mood
  • tumour necrosis factor-alpha

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Physiology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

Cite this

The effects of exercise withdrawal on mood and inflammatory cytokine responses in humans. / Poole, Lydia; Hamer, Mark; Wawrzyniak, Andrew; Steptoe, Andrew.

In: Stress, Vol. 14, No. 4, 01.07.2011, p. 439-447.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Poole, Lydia ; Hamer, Mark ; Wawrzyniak, Andrew ; Steptoe, Andrew. / The effects of exercise withdrawal on mood and inflammatory cytokine responses in humans. In: Stress. 2011 ; Vol. 14, No. 4. pp. 439-447.
@article{55bad98dc7e44bf99b3ccde8d6dd6ba1,
title = "The effects of exercise withdrawal on mood and inflammatory cytokine responses in humans",
abstract = "Mechanisms underlying the relationship between exercise and mood are not well understood. This study sought to investigate the role of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines and autonomic balance in determining the impact of exercise withdrawal on negative mood. Healthy men and women who regularly exercised (N=26, mean age=25.5 years, SD=4.5 years) were randomised to exercise withdrawal or exercise maintenance for 2 weeks. Protocol adherence was monitored using accelerometers. Inflammatory markers from plasma (interleukin-6, IL-6; tumour necrosis factor-alpha; interleukin-10; and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist), heart-rate variability (HRV) and measures of mood (General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS)) were assessed at study entry and at 2-week follow-up. Exercise withdrawal resulted in significant increases in negative mood over time on both the GHQ (p=0.028) and the POMS (p=0.005). Following the intervention, IL-6 concentration was lower in the exercise withdrawal than exercise maintenance condition (p=0.05). No intervention effects were observed for other cytokines or HRV. The mood changes were significantly related to changes in IL-6 concentration (β=-0.50, p=0.011), indicating that reduction in IL-6 was related to increased negative mood. Our results are consistent with positive effects of exercise on mental health, but further research on inflammatory pathways is warranted.",
keywords = "anti-inflammatory cytokines, Exercise, heart-rate variability, interleukin-6, mood, tumour necrosis factor-alpha",
author = "Lydia Poole and Mark Hamer and Andrew Wawrzyniak and Andrew Steptoe",
year = "2011",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3109/10253890.2011.557109",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
pages = "439--447",
journal = "Stress",
issn = "1025-3890",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effects of exercise withdrawal on mood and inflammatory cytokine responses in humans

AU - Poole, Lydia

AU - Hamer, Mark

AU - Wawrzyniak, Andrew

AU - Steptoe, Andrew

PY - 2011/7/1

Y1 - 2011/7/1

N2 - Mechanisms underlying the relationship between exercise and mood are not well understood. This study sought to investigate the role of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines and autonomic balance in determining the impact of exercise withdrawal on negative mood. Healthy men and women who regularly exercised (N=26, mean age=25.5 years, SD=4.5 years) were randomised to exercise withdrawal or exercise maintenance for 2 weeks. Protocol adherence was monitored using accelerometers. Inflammatory markers from plasma (interleukin-6, IL-6; tumour necrosis factor-alpha; interleukin-10; and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist), heart-rate variability (HRV) and measures of mood (General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS)) were assessed at study entry and at 2-week follow-up. Exercise withdrawal resulted in significant increases in negative mood over time on both the GHQ (p=0.028) and the POMS (p=0.005). Following the intervention, IL-6 concentration was lower in the exercise withdrawal than exercise maintenance condition (p=0.05). No intervention effects were observed for other cytokines or HRV. The mood changes were significantly related to changes in IL-6 concentration (β=-0.50, p=0.011), indicating that reduction in IL-6 was related to increased negative mood. Our results are consistent with positive effects of exercise on mental health, but further research on inflammatory pathways is warranted.

AB - Mechanisms underlying the relationship between exercise and mood are not well understood. This study sought to investigate the role of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines and autonomic balance in determining the impact of exercise withdrawal on negative mood. Healthy men and women who regularly exercised (N=26, mean age=25.5 years, SD=4.5 years) were randomised to exercise withdrawal or exercise maintenance for 2 weeks. Protocol adherence was monitored using accelerometers. Inflammatory markers from plasma (interleukin-6, IL-6; tumour necrosis factor-alpha; interleukin-10; and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist), heart-rate variability (HRV) and measures of mood (General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS)) were assessed at study entry and at 2-week follow-up. Exercise withdrawal resulted in significant increases in negative mood over time on both the GHQ (p=0.028) and the POMS (p=0.005). Following the intervention, IL-6 concentration was lower in the exercise withdrawal than exercise maintenance condition (p=0.05). No intervention effects were observed for other cytokines or HRV. The mood changes were significantly related to changes in IL-6 concentration (β=-0.50, p=0.011), indicating that reduction in IL-6 was related to increased negative mood. Our results are consistent with positive effects of exercise on mental health, but further research on inflammatory pathways is warranted.

KW - anti-inflammatory cytokines

KW - Exercise

KW - heart-rate variability

KW - interleukin-6

KW - mood

KW - tumour necrosis factor-alpha

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79958784725&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79958784725&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3109/10253890.2011.557109

DO - 10.3109/10253890.2011.557109

M3 - Article

C2 - 21438778

AN - SCOPUS:79958784725

VL - 14

SP - 439

EP - 447

JO - Stress

JF - Stress

SN - 1025-3890

IS - 4

ER -