The effects of a phonological awareness intervention on the oral English proficiency of Spanish-speaking kindergarten children

Debra A. Giambo, James D. Mckinney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


The primary aim of this study was to determine whether a phonological awareness intervention promoted oral English proficiency more than a story-reading condition for Spanish-speaking kindergarten children, most of whom were limited English proficient. A second aim was to determine the extent to which change in English proficiency over the course of the intervention could be attributed to change in phonological awareness. Pre-and posttest measures included tests of oral English proficiency receptive English vocabulary, and phonological awareness. Although both groups showed significant change in oral English proficiency over pretest scores, an analysis of covariance, covarying pretest scores, indicated the phonological awareness group showed greater change than did the story-reading group. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with measures of sound discrimination, short-term memory, and change in vocabulary and phonological awareness in the predictive model. Results indicated that changes in phonological awareness variables were the only significant predictors of change in oral English proficiency. These results suggest that phonological awareness instruction promotes oral English proficiency for Spanish-speaking kindergarten children. Thus, a balanced reading program for limited English proficient, Spanish-speaking kindergarten children, including story reading, should also include phonological awareness instruction for the added benefit of greater change in oral English proficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-117
Number of pages23
JournalTESOL Quarterly
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2004


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language

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