The effect of selected classical music and spontaneous imagery on plasma β-endorphin

Cathy H. McKinney, Frederick C. Tims, Adarsh M. Kumar, Mahendra Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


This study explored the effect of music and imagery on plasma β- endorphin in 78 undergraduates. Subjects screened for relevant psychological and health criteria were assigned to music imaging, silent imaging music listening, and control conditions. Subjects donated 15 ml of blood prior to and following the 2-hr intervention period. There were no group differences in potential confounding variables. Split-plot factorial analysis controlling for individual differences in pretest level of β-endorphin revealed that those in the music imaging group experienced a significant pre-post decline in β-endorphin, while no other group demonstrated any significant pre-post difference. These data suggest that music imaging may lower peripheral β- endorphin levels in healthy subjects. Further exploration of the effects of music and imagery interventions on physiology and health may be warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-99
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Behavioral Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 4 1997


  • β-endorphin
  • imagery
  • music

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Clinical Psychology


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