The effect of ethnicity in the rate of beta-cell functional loss in the first 3 years after type 1 diabetes diagnosis

Mustafa Tosur, Mario A. Cleves, Jay M. Sosenko, Ingrid Libman, David A. Baidal, Ashok Balasubramanyam, Maria J. Redondo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: We set forth to compare ethnicities for metabolic and immunological characteristics at the clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and assess the effect of ethnicity on beta-cell functional loss within 3 years after clinical diagnosis. Research Methods and Design: We studied participants in TrialNet New Onset Intervention Trials (n = 624, median age = 14.4 years, 58% male, 8.7% Hispanic) and followed them prospectively for 3 years. Mixed meal tolerance tests (MMTT) were performed within 6 months following clinical diagnosis and repeated semiannually. Unless otherwise indicated, analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI Z-score, and diabetes duration. Results: At T1D clinical diagnosis, Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW), had a higher frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (44.7% vs 25.3%, OR = 2.36, P = 0.01), lower fasting glucose (97 vs 109 mg/dL, P = 0.02) and higher fasting C-peptide (1.23 vs 0.94 ng/mL, P = 0.02) on the first MMTT, and higher frequency of ZnT8 autoantibody positivity (n = 201, 94.1% vs 64%, OR = 7.98, P = 0.05). After exclusion of participants in experimental arms of positive clinical trials, C-peptide area under the curve (AUC) trajectories during the first 3 years after clinical diagnosis were not significantly different between Hispanics and NHW after adjusting for age, sex, BMI-z score, and DKA (n = 413, P = 0.14). Conclusion: Despite differences in the metabolic and immunological characteristics at clinical diagnosis of T1D between Hispanics and NHW, C-peptide trajectories did not differ significantly in the first 3 years following clinical diagnosis after adjustment for body mass index and other confounders. These findings may inform the design of observational studies and intervention trials in T1D.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2020


  • Beta-cell function
  • C-peptide
  • Ethnic minorities
  • Ethnicity
  • Hispanics
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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