The effect of composition on the density of South Pacific Ocean waters

Frank J. Millero, Fen Huang, Nancy Williams, Jason Waters, Ryan Woosley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

The conductivities and densities were measured on 331 samples collected in the South Pacific Ocean during the P18 CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability) cruise. The relative densities (ρ - ρ0) were compared to those determined from the equation of state of seawater. The excess densities (Δρ = ρMeas - ρCalc) ranged from ± 0.003 kg m- 3 in surface waters to 0.015 kg m- 3 in deep waters due to additions of nutrients and carbonates. The values of Δρ were found to be a linear function of the increases of ΔNTA, ΔSi(OH)4 and ΔNO3 in the deep waters (σ = 0.002 to 0.005 kg m- 3). The best correlations of Δρ with changes in concentration of ΔSi(OH)4 are (N = 331) given byΔ ρ / kg m- 3 = - 1.7 · 10- 3 + 9.4 · 10- 5 Δ Si (OH)4 (σ = 0.0043 kg m- 3) . Correlation of the South Pacific data with earlier measurements made in the North Pacific and Indian oceans (N = 596) are given byΔ ρ / (kg m- 3) = - 1.7 · 10- 3 + 9.44 · 10- 5 Δ Si (OH)4 (σ = 0.0043 kg m- 3) . The excess densities can also be accounted for by determining the change in the absolute salinity (SA) of seawater. The values of ΔS have been estimated fromΔ S = 50 Δ NTA + 68 Δ SiO2 + 63 Δ HNO3 + 82 Δ H3 PO4 . The values of Δρ/kg m- 3 calculated from the estimated values of SA agreed with the measured densities with a standard error of ± 0.004 kg m- 3. Values of SA determined from density measurements also show a correlation with ΔSi(OH)4. The Indian and South Pacific values have been fitted to (σ = 0.0044)Δ S = - 2.4 · 10- 3 + 1.06 · 10- 4 Δ Si (OH)4 . An error of ± 0.0044 g kg- 1 in SA is equivalent to and error of ± 0.003 kg m- 3 in the density (which is the precision of the density measurements).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-62
Number of pages7
JournalMarine Chemistry
Volume114
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 20 2009

Keywords

  • Absolute salinity
  • Excess density
  • South Pacific Ocean

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Water Science and Technology

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    Millero, F. J., Huang, F., Williams, N., Waters, J., & Woosley, R. (2009). The effect of composition on the density of South Pacific Ocean waters. Marine Chemistry, 114(1-2), 56-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2009.04.001