Both the p53- and E2F1-signaling pathways are defective in almost all types of tumors, suggesting very important roles for their signaling networks in regulating the process of tumorigenesis and therapy response. Studies on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group tissue samples have identified aberrant expression of p53, MDM2 (an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets p53 for proteosomal degradation), and p16 (an upstream regulator of retinoblastoma and hence E2F1 in prostate cancer); abnormal expression of these biomarkers has been associated with clinical outcome after radiotherapy ± androgen deprivation therapy. Although the proapoptotic properties of p53 are well documented, a relatively new aspect of p53 function as an active mediator of prosurvival signaling pathways is now emerging. E2F1 is a transcription factor that possesses both proapoptotic and prosurvival properties. Thus, the role of E2F1 in the process of tumorigenesis versus apoptosis is a contested issue that needs to be resolved. Furthermore, the role of E2F1 in DNA repair is being increasingly recognized. Thus, novel approaches to curb the prosurvival and DNA repair capability of E2F1 while promoting apoptotic function are of interest. In this review, we discuss the challenges involved in targeting the p53/E2F1 pathways and the crosstalk networks, and further propose potential therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer management.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research