PURPOSE: To develop an animal model of a fibrin, and platelet-rich intraluminal arterial thrombus with abnormal mural substrate to simulate in situ thrombosis of human atherosclerotic arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parallel studies of the crush-thrombin model (CT) and double-tuck model (DT) were performed and evaluated with use of angiography and histologic analysis. Ten Yorkshire swine (1-6 months; 20-30 kg; 10 females) underwent right femoral and carotid cutdowns performed after administration of general anesthesia (4 mL intravenous thiopental sodium, isoflurane 2% in 1 L of oxygen). After angiography, the CT model was created in the left carotid artery and the DT model was performed in the right carotid artery. Angiograms were obtained at 20 minutes (n = 1), at 1 hour (n = 3), at 2 hours (n = 4), and at 3 hours (n = 2) before sacrifice. After sacrifice, histologic specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H-E stain) and phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin for fibrin. The specimens were examined for endothelial irregularity and adhesion, platelet aggregation, fibrin layering, vessel wall injury, and adventitial hemorrhage. The findings were quantified as 0 = absent, 1+ = slight, 2+ = moderate, and 3+ = severe. RESULTS: Angiographic results were similar. However, histologic analysis of the CT model showed severe damage to the arterial wall with dissection in nine of 10 animals. In the DT model, no dissection was found (n = 10). Endothelial irregularity was found in six of 10 arteries treated with the CT method, as compared with nine of 10 arteries prepared with the DT model; endothelial adhesion was found in five DT arteries and in four CT arteries. Platelet aggregation was present equally in both methods. A fibrin- and platelet-rich thrombus was created in five of 10 examined arteries by both methods. CONCLUSIONS: The DT model creates endothelial irregularity leading to formation of a platelet- and fibrin-rich thrombus, adherent to the vessel wall without damage to the media. This contrasts with the CT method, which created medial dissection in nine of 10 arteries. One hour is the minimum time required to produce a good quality thrombus; 2 hours is the optimum time. The DT model is proposed as a useful tool in the development of new devices, drugs, and biotechnologic advances.
- Animal model
- Thrombosis, arterial
- Thrombosis, experimental
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology