The cognitive change checklist (3CL): Cross-validation of a measure of change in everyday cognition

John A. Schinka, Ashok Raj, David A. Loewenstein, Brent J. Small, Ranjan Duara, Huntington Potter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Objective: The recently developed cognitive change checklist (3CL) is comprised of four scales titled memory, executive, language, and remote recall. A previous study demonstrated that the checklist met criteria for reliability and validity in characterizing cases of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia in a memory disorder clinic sample. In this study we examined further the reliability, validity, and efficacy of the 3CL in distinguishing among groups of normal individuals, those with cognitive complaints, amnestic and non-amnestic MCI cases, and early-stage demented individuals. Design: Scale validation study. Setting: Alzheimer's Disease Research Center Participants: One hundred and twenty-five individuals who completed extensive evaluations as part of a longitudinal study of cognitive change. Results: Scale reliabilities were found to be well within guidelines to support their use in the clinical assessment of change in global and specific cognitive domains. The factor structure of the 3CL was found to be highly similar to that originally reported. Validation support was obtained from correlational analyses that showed significant scale relationships with neurocognitive measures and with MRI ratings of medial temporal atrophy. Informant 3CL scales were found to discriminate individuals with cognitive complaints but without clinical findings from those individuals with amnestic MCI or early dementia. Conclusion: Results extend the foundation of support for the use of the 3CL as a measure to facilitate identification of cases of MCI and early AD. Further examination of the diagnostic utility of the scale, and of its value in combination with cognitive screening measures, will also be required.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)266-274
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2010


  • Aging
  • Cognition
  • Cognitive decline
  • Dementia
  • Everyday cognition
  • Everyday function
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Rating scales

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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