Objective: A systemic review of published literature on the use of bulking agents in the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in patients with duplex systems was performed in order to evaluate the diagnostic challenges; determine success rates, and compare with use in single systems; and evaluate safety, in particular of Deflux. Methods: A PubMed/Medline search was conducted for index articles discussing duplex ureters published in 1963-2007. All types of publications were included. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results: Overall, 28 different treatment arms originating in 17 separate studies (19 publications) satisfied the inclusion criteria for linear regression efficacy analysis. Data were available on 2879 patients: 2400 with single and 479 with duplex systems. Ten publications provided information on the frequency of failure to diagnose duplex systems using specific techniques. An overall 18% failure rate to detect duplex systems was reported for combined techniques. For patients in whom favorable anatomic location of ureters allowed successful endoscopic injection of a bulking agent, correction of VUR was achieved in 53-100% of cases. A univariant analysis showed no difference in success rate between single and duplex systems with the use of Deflux, or other bulking agent. The predicted probability of success in a single system was 68% and in a duplex system 64%. Conclusions: There is significant potential for failing to detect duplex systems prior to preparing an individual for either open or endoscopic treatment. From the studies available, endoscopic injection of bulking agents is highly successful in correcting mild-to-moderate VUR in duplex systems, with no reports of serious or clinically significant adverse effects. At a minimum, duplex systems would not seem to be a contraindication to the use of Deflux or any other bulking agent.
- Bulking agents
- Duplex ureters
- Vesicoureteral reflux
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health