The climate response of the Indo-Pacific warm pool to glacial sea level

Pedro N. Di Nezio, Axel Timmermann, Jessica E. Tierney, Fei Fei Jin, Bette Otto-Bliesner, Nan Rosenbloom, Brian E Mapes, Rich Neale, Ruza F. Ivanovic, Alvaro Montenegro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Growing climate proxy evidence suggests that changes in sea level are important drivers of tropical climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. These paleodata suggest that rainfall patterns over the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) are highly sensitive to the landmass configuration of the Maritime Continent and that lowered sea level contributed to large-scale drying during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, approximately 21,000 years B.P.). Using the Community Earth System Model Version 1.2 (CESM1), we investigate the mechanisms by which lowered sea level influenced the climate of the IPWP during the LGM. The CESM1 simulations show that, in agreement with previous hypotheses, changes in atmospheric circulation are initiated by the exposure of the Sunda and Sahul shelves. Ocean dynamical processes amplify the changes in atmospheric circulation by increasing the east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean. The coupled mechanism driving this response is akin to the Bjerknes feedback and results in a large-scale climatic reorganization over the Indian Ocean with impacts extending from east Africa to the western tropical Pacific. Unlike exposure of the Sunda shelf, exposure of Sahul shelf and the associated changes in surface albedo play a key role because of the positive feedback. This mechanism could explain the pattern of dry (wet) eastern (western) Indian Ocean identified in climate proxies and LGM simulations. However, this response also requires a strengthened SST gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean, a pattern that is not evident in marine paleoreconstructions. Strategies to resolve this issue are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)866-894
Number of pages29
JournalPaleoceanography
Volume31
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016

Fingerprint

warm pool
sea level
climate
atmospheric circulation
temperature gradient
sea surface temperature
Last Glacial Maximum
interglacial
simulation
albedo
timescale
rainfall
climate change
Indian Ocean
ocean
exposure

Keywords

  • climate
  • Indian
  • LGM
  • Sahul
  • sea level
  • Sunda

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Di Nezio, P. N., Timmermann, A., Tierney, J. E., Jin, F. F., Otto-Bliesner, B., Rosenbloom, N., ... Montenegro, A. (2016). The climate response of the Indo-Pacific warm pool to glacial sea level. Paleoceanography, 31(6), 866-894. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015PA002890

The climate response of the Indo-Pacific warm pool to glacial sea level. / Di Nezio, Pedro N.; Timmermann, Axel; Tierney, Jessica E.; Jin, Fei Fei; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Rosenbloom, Nan; Mapes, Brian E; Neale, Rich; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Montenegro, Alvaro.

In: Paleoceanography, Vol. 31, No. 6, 01.06.2016, p. 866-894.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Di Nezio, PN, Timmermann, A, Tierney, JE, Jin, FF, Otto-Bliesner, B, Rosenbloom, N, Mapes, BE, Neale, R, Ivanovic, RF & Montenegro, A 2016, 'The climate response of the Indo-Pacific warm pool to glacial sea level', Paleoceanography, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 866-894. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015PA002890
Di Nezio PN, Timmermann A, Tierney JE, Jin FF, Otto-Bliesner B, Rosenbloom N et al. The climate response of the Indo-Pacific warm pool to glacial sea level. Paleoceanography. 2016 Jun 1;31(6):866-894. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015PA002890
Di Nezio, Pedro N. ; Timmermann, Axel ; Tierney, Jessica E. ; Jin, Fei Fei ; Otto-Bliesner, Bette ; Rosenbloom, Nan ; Mapes, Brian E ; Neale, Rich ; Ivanovic, Ruza F. ; Montenegro, Alvaro. / The climate response of the Indo-Pacific warm pool to glacial sea level. In: Paleoceanography. 2016 ; Vol. 31, No. 6. pp. 866-894.
@article{65467713f7954bdd9c079042cf6ac53b,
title = "The climate response of the Indo-Pacific warm pool to glacial sea level",
abstract = "Growing climate proxy evidence suggests that changes in sea level are important drivers of tropical climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. These paleodata suggest that rainfall patterns over the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) are highly sensitive to the landmass configuration of the Maritime Continent and that lowered sea level contributed to large-scale drying during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, approximately 21,000 years B.P.). Using the Community Earth System Model Version 1.2 (CESM1), we investigate the mechanisms by which lowered sea level influenced the climate of the IPWP during the LGM. The CESM1 simulations show that, in agreement with previous hypotheses, changes in atmospheric circulation are initiated by the exposure of the Sunda and Sahul shelves. Ocean dynamical processes amplify the changes in atmospheric circulation by increasing the east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean. The coupled mechanism driving this response is akin to the Bjerknes feedback and results in a large-scale climatic reorganization over the Indian Ocean with impacts extending from east Africa to the western tropical Pacific. Unlike exposure of the Sunda shelf, exposure of Sahul shelf and the associated changes in surface albedo play a key role because of the positive feedback. This mechanism could explain the pattern of dry (wet) eastern (western) Indian Ocean identified in climate proxies and LGM simulations. However, this response also requires a strengthened SST gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean, a pattern that is not evident in marine paleoreconstructions. Strategies to resolve this issue are discussed.",
keywords = "climate, Indian, LGM, Sahul, sea level, Sunda",
author = "{Di Nezio}, {Pedro N.} and Axel Timmermann and Tierney, {Jessica E.} and Jin, {Fei Fei} and Bette Otto-Bliesner and Nan Rosenbloom and Mapes, {Brian E} and Rich Neale and Ivanovic, {Ruza F.} and Alvaro Montenegro",
year = "2016",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/2015PA002890",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "31",
pages = "866--894",
journal = "Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology",
issn = "2572-4517",
publisher = "American Geophysical Union",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The climate response of the Indo-Pacific warm pool to glacial sea level

AU - Di Nezio, Pedro N.

AU - Timmermann, Axel

AU - Tierney, Jessica E.

AU - Jin, Fei Fei

AU - Otto-Bliesner, Bette

AU - Rosenbloom, Nan

AU - Mapes, Brian E

AU - Neale, Rich

AU - Ivanovic, Ruza F.

AU - Montenegro, Alvaro

PY - 2016/6/1

Y1 - 2016/6/1

N2 - Growing climate proxy evidence suggests that changes in sea level are important drivers of tropical climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. These paleodata suggest that rainfall patterns over the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) are highly sensitive to the landmass configuration of the Maritime Continent and that lowered sea level contributed to large-scale drying during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, approximately 21,000 years B.P.). Using the Community Earth System Model Version 1.2 (CESM1), we investigate the mechanisms by which lowered sea level influenced the climate of the IPWP during the LGM. The CESM1 simulations show that, in agreement with previous hypotheses, changes in atmospheric circulation are initiated by the exposure of the Sunda and Sahul shelves. Ocean dynamical processes amplify the changes in atmospheric circulation by increasing the east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean. The coupled mechanism driving this response is akin to the Bjerknes feedback and results in a large-scale climatic reorganization over the Indian Ocean with impacts extending from east Africa to the western tropical Pacific. Unlike exposure of the Sunda shelf, exposure of Sahul shelf and the associated changes in surface albedo play a key role because of the positive feedback. This mechanism could explain the pattern of dry (wet) eastern (western) Indian Ocean identified in climate proxies and LGM simulations. However, this response also requires a strengthened SST gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean, a pattern that is not evident in marine paleoreconstructions. Strategies to resolve this issue are discussed.

AB - Growing climate proxy evidence suggests that changes in sea level are important drivers of tropical climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. These paleodata suggest that rainfall patterns over the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) are highly sensitive to the landmass configuration of the Maritime Continent and that lowered sea level contributed to large-scale drying during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, approximately 21,000 years B.P.). Using the Community Earth System Model Version 1.2 (CESM1), we investigate the mechanisms by which lowered sea level influenced the climate of the IPWP during the LGM. The CESM1 simulations show that, in agreement with previous hypotheses, changes in atmospheric circulation are initiated by the exposure of the Sunda and Sahul shelves. Ocean dynamical processes amplify the changes in atmospheric circulation by increasing the east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean. The coupled mechanism driving this response is akin to the Bjerknes feedback and results in a large-scale climatic reorganization over the Indian Ocean with impacts extending from east Africa to the western tropical Pacific. Unlike exposure of the Sunda shelf, exposure of Sahul shelf and the associated changes in surface albedo play a key role because of the positive feedback. This mechanism could explain the pattern of dry (wet) eastern (western) Indian Ocean identified in climate proxies and LGM simulations. However, this response also requires a strengthened SST gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean, a pattern that is not evident in marine paleoreconstructions. Strategies to resolve this issue are discussed.

KW - climate

KW - Indian

KW - LGM

KW - Sahul

KW - sea level

KW - Sunda

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84978069229&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84978069229&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/2015PA002890

DO - 10.1002/2015PA002890

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84978069229

VL - 31

SP - 866

EP - 894

JO - Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology

JF - Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology

SN - 2572-4517

IS - 6

ER -