The association of sex with outcomes among patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST elevation myocardial infarction in the contemporary era

Insights from the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium (BMC2)

Elizabeth A. Jackson, Mauro Moscucci, Dean E. Smith, David Share, Simon Dixon, Adam Greenbaum, Paul M. Grossman, Hitinder S. Gurm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

71 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Historically, women with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have had a higher mortality compared with men. It is unclear if these differences persist among patients undergoing contemporary primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with focus on early reperfusion. Methods: We assessed the impact of sex on the outcome of 8,771 patients with acute STEMI who underwent primary PCI from 2003 to 2008 at 32 hospitals participating in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium PCI registry. A propensity-matched analysis was performed to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and comorbidities between men and women. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the cohort was female. Compared with men, women were older and had more comorbidity. Female sex was associated with a higher unadjusted in-hospital mortality (6.02% vs 3.45%, odds ratio [OR] 1.79, 95% CI 1.45-2.22, P < .0001) and higher risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (OR 1.75, P < .0001), vascular complications (OR 2.13, P < .0001), and postprocedure transfusion (OR 2.84, P < .0001). The gap in sex-specific mortality narrowed over time. In a propensity-matched analysis, female sex was associated with a higher rate of transfusion (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.57-2.24, P < .0001) and vascular complications (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.26-2.14, P < .0002); but there was no difference in mortality (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.98-1.72, P = .07). Conclusions: Women make up approximately one third of patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI. Female sex is associated with an apparent hazard of increased mortality among patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI, but this difference is likely explained by older age and worse baseline comorbidities among women.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Heart Journal
Volume161
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011

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Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Odds Ratio
Comorbidity
Mortality
Blood Vessels
Hospital Mortality
ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Reperfusion
Registries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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The association of sex with outcomes among patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST elevation myocardial infarction in the contemporary era : Insights from the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium (BMC2). / Jackson, Elizabeth A.; Moscucci, Mauro; Smith, Dean E.; Share, David; Dixon, Simon; Greenbaum, Adam; Grossman, Paul M.; Gurm, Hitinder S.

In: American Heart Journal, Vol. 161, No. 1, 01.01.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "The association of sex with outcomes among patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST elevation myocardial infarction in the contemporary era: Insights from the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium (BMC2)",
abstract = "Background: Historically, women with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have had a higher mortality compared with men. It is unclear if these differences persist among patients undergoing contemporary primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with focus on early reperfusion. Methods: We assessed the impact of sex on the outcome of 8,771 patients with acute STEMI who underwent primary PCI from 2003 to 2008 at 32 hospitals participating in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium PCI registry. A propensity-matched analysis was performed to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and comorbidities between men and women. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the cohort was female. Compared with men, women were older and had more comorbidity. Female sex was associated with a higher unadjusted in-hospital mortality (6.02{\%} vs 3.45{\%}, odds ratio [OR] 1.79, 95{\%} CI 1.45-2.22, P < .0001) and higher risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (OR 1.75, P < .0001), vascular complications (OR 2.13, P < .0001), and postprocedure transfusion (OR 2.84, P < .0001). The gap in sex-specific mortality narrowed over time. In a propensity-matched analysis, female sex was associated with a higher rate of transfusion (OR 1.88, 95{\%} CI 1.57-2.24, P < .0001) and vascular complications (OR 1.65, 95{\%} CI 1.26-2.14, P < .0002); but there was no difference in mortality (OR 1.30, 95{\%} CI 0.98-1.72, P = .07). Conclusions: Women make up approximately one third of patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI. Female sex is associated with an apparent hazard of increased mortality among patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI, but this difference is likely explained by older age and worse baseline comorbidities among women.",
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AU - Moscucci, Mauro

AU - Smith, Dean E.

AU - Share, David

AU - Dixon, Simon

AU - Greenbaum, Adam

AU - Grossman, Paul M.

AU - Gurm, Hitinder S.

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N2 - Background: Historically, women with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have had a higher mortality compared with men. It is unclear if these differences persist among patients undergoing contemporary primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with focus on early reperfusion. Methods: We assessed the impact of sex on the outcome of 8,771 patients with acute STEMI who underwent primary PCI from 2003 to 2008 at 32 hospitals participating in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium PCI registry. A propensity-matched analysis was performed to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and comorbidities between men and women. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the cohort was female. Compared with men, women were older and had more comorbidity. Female sex was associated with a higher unadjusted in-hospital mortality (6.02% vs 3.45%, odds ratio [OR] 1.79, 95% CI 1.45-2.22, P < .0001) and higher risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (OR 1.75, P < .0001), vascular complications (OR 2.13, P < .0001), and postprocedure transfusion (OR 2.84, P < .0001). The gap in sex-specific mortality narrowed over time. In a propensity-matched analysis, female sex was associated with a higher rate of transfusion (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.57-2.24, P < .0001) and vascular complications (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.26-2.14, P < .0002); but there was no difference in mortality (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.98-1.72, P = .07). Conclusions: Women make up approximately one third of patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI. Female sex is associated with an apparent hazard of increased mortality among patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI, but this difference is likely explained by older age and worse baseline comorbidities among women.

AB - Background: Historically, women with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have had a higher mortality compared with men. It is unclear if these differences persist among patients undergoing contemporary primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with focus on early reperfusion. Methods: We assessed the impact of sex on the outcome of 8,771 patients with acute STEMI who underwent primary PCI from 2003 to 2008 at 32 hospitals participating in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium PCI registry. A propensity-matched analysis was performed to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and comorbidities between men and women. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the cohort was female. Compared with men, women were older and had more comorbidity. Female sex was associated with a higher unadjusted in-hospital mortality (6.02% vs 3.45%, odds ratio [OR] 1.79, 95% CI 1.45-2.22, P < .0001) and higher risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (OR 1.75, P < .0001), vascular complications (OR 2.13, P < .0001), and postprocedure transfusion (OR 2.84, P < .0001). The gap in sex-specific mortality narrowed over time. In a propensity-matched analysis, female sex was associated with a higher rate of transfusion (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.57-2.24, P < .0001) and vascular complications (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.26-2.14, P < .0002); but there was no difference in mortality (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.98-1.72, P = .07). Conclusions: Women make up approximately one third of patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI. Female sex is associated with an apparent hazard of increased mortality among patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI, but this difference is likely explained by older age and worse baseline comorbidities among women.

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