The Association Between the Social Determinants of Health and HIV Control in Miami-Dade County ZIP Codes, 2017

Dayana Rojas, Anamarie Melo, Imelda K. Moise, Jorge Saavedra, José Szapocznik

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1 Scopus citations


Background: There were 28,055 people living with HIV (PLWH) in Miami-Dade County (MDC) in 2017; 40.1% was either out of care or was not virally suppressed (uncontrolled HIV). The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the social determinants of health (SDOH) and the number of persons with uncontrolled HIV in MDC. Setting: This cross-sectional study included PLWH 15 and older with uncontrolled HIV in MDC, 2017. Data on PLWH’s viral load, age, gender, mode of HIV transmission, and race/ethnicity were aggregated to the ZIP code level. All five SDOH per HealthyPeople 2020 were represented: economic stability, education, social and community context, health and healthcare, and neighborhood and built environment. Methods: Descriptive analyses on all study variables and a principal component analysis on the SDOH variables were performed. To account for overdispersion, multivariate negative binomial regressions were run while controlling for confounders and testing for significant interactions. Results: The results of the regression analysis indicated that an increase in Factor 1 (economic stability, education, and health and healthcare determinants) was associated with a statistically significant increase in the number of PLWH with uncontrolled HIV. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between Factor 1 and White race. Among persons of low socioeconomic status, White race is associated with a reduction in PLWH with uncontrolled HIV. Conclusions: These results suggest that reducing poverty and increasing education and rates of health insurance should result in significant reductions in PLWH with uncontrolled HIV. These results have the potential to influence future policy, interventions for retention, adherence, and continuity of care to improve suppression rates in MDC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)763-772
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Detectable viral load
  • GIS
  • HIV
  • Social determinants of health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Anthropology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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