The associated risk factors for coronary artery calcium in asymptomatic individuals with and without diabetes in rural Central Appalachia

Hadii M. Mamudu, Pooja Subedi, Timir Paul, Ali E. Alamin, Arsham Alamian, Liang Wang, David Stewart, Antwan Jones, Sam Harirforoosh, Gerald Blackwell, Matthew Budoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aim: To examine the risk factor of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in individuals with diabetes and those without diabetes in Central Appalachia. Methods: Study population included 2479 asymptomatic participants who underwent CAC screening between August 2012 and November 2016. CAC score was classified into four categories [0 (no plaque), 1–99 (mild plaque), 100–399 (moderate plaque), and ≥400 (severe plaque)]. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between CAC and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among participants with diabetes, age and gender matched controls, and randomly selected controls. Results: 13.6% of total participants had diabetes. Around 69%, 59.8%, and 57.7% of the participants with diabetes, matched controls, and randomly selected controls had CAC score ≥1, respectively. Participants with diabetes had higher prevalence of all CVD risk factors than controls. Among participants with diabetes, hypertension and physical inactivity increased the odds of CAC = 100–399, while among those without diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesteremia increased the odds of having CAC = 1–99 and CAC ≥ 400. Conclusion: Half of study participants had subclinical atherosclerosis (i.e., CAC), and individuals with diabetes had higher CAC scores. This study suggests that individuals with diabetes in Central Appalachia might benefit from screening for CAC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)900-905
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
Volume32
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Central Appalachia
  • Coronary artery calcium
  • Diabetes
  • Subclinical atherosclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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