The anatomical sources of neointimal cells in the arteriovenous fistula*

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1 Scopus citations


Neointimal cells are an elusive population with ambiguous origins, functions, and states of differentiation. Expansion of the venous intima in arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is one of the most prominent remodeling processes in the wall after access creation. However, most of the current knowledge about neointimal cells in AVFs comes from extrapolations from the arterial neointima in non-AVF systems. Understanding the origin of neointimal cells in fistulas may have important implications for the design and effective delivery of therapies aimed to decrease intimal hyperplasia (IH). In addition, a broader knowledge of cellular dynamics during postoperative remodeling of the AVF may help clarify other transformation processes in the wall that combined with IH determine the successful remodeling or failure of the access. In this review, we discuss the possible anatomical sources of neointimal cells in AVFs and their relative contribution to intimal expansion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Vascular Access
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Intimal hyperplasia
  • arteriovenous fistula
  • basic science
  • cell
  • smooth muscle cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Nephrology


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