TFF1 antagonizes TIMP-1 mediated proliferative functions in gastric cancer

Omar M. Omar, Mohammed Soutto, Nadeem S. Bhat, Ajaz A. Bhat, Heng Lu, Zheng Chen, Wael El-Rifai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) is one of four identified members of the TIMP family. We evaluated the role of TIMP1 in gastric cancer using human and mouse tissues along with gastric organoids and in vitro cell models. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we detected significant overexpression of TIMP1 in the human gastric cancer samples, as compared to normal stomach samples (P < 0.01). We also detected overexpression of Timp1 in neoplastic gastric lesions of the Tff1-knockout (KO) mice, as compared to normal stomach tissues. Reconstitution of TFF1 in human gastric cancer cell lines led to a significant decrease in the mRNA expression level of TIMP1 (P < 0.05). In vitro analysis demonstrated that TIMP1 mRNA expression is induced by TNF-α and activation of NF-κB whereas inhibition of NF-κB using BAY11-7082 led to inhibition of NF-κB and downregulation of TIMP1. Western blot analysis confirmed the decrease in TIMP1 protein level following reconstitution of TFF1. By using immunofluorescence, we showed nuclear localization of NF-κB and expression of TIMP1 in gastric organoids established from the Tff1-KO stomach where reconstitution of Tff1 using recombinant protein led to a notable reduction in the expression of both NF-κB and TIMP1. Using EDU assay, as a measure of proliferating cells, we found that TIMP1 promotes cellular proliferation whereas TFF1 reconstitution leads to a significant decrease in cellular proliferation (P < 0.05). In summary, our findings demonstrate overexpression of TIMP1 in mouse and human gastric cancers through NF-kB-dependent mechanism. We also show that TFF1 suppresses NF-κB and inhibits TIMP1-mediated proliferative potential in gastric cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1577-1587
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular Carcinogenesis
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2018


  • NFκB
  • TFF1
  • TIMP1
  • gastric cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cancer Research


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