Testing Berry's Model of Acculturation: A Confirmatory Latent Class Approach

Seth J. Schwartz, Byron L. Zamboanga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

164 Scopus citations


The authors examined the extent to which Berry's (1997) acculturation orientation categories-assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization-would emerge from a latent class analysis of continuous acculturation indices. Hispanic college students (N = 436) from Miami participated in the study. The authors used measures of heritage and American cultural orientations to create the latent classes. The authors utilized a number of external variables, including ethnic identity, value-based indices of cultural identity, familial ethnic socialization, acculturative stress, and perceived ethnic discrimination to validate the cluster solution. Overall, our findings provided mixed support for Berry's model. Six latent classes emerged from analysis. Two of these appeared to represent variants of biculturalism, two resembled a combination of assimilation and biculturalism, one resembled a combination of separation and biculturalism, and one was not clearly associated with any of Berry's categories. The two bicultural classes differed markedly in American and heritage cultural orientations, ethnic identity, and nearly all of the value-based indices of cultural identity. Some of the differences among the six classes supported Berry's model, and others did not. The authors discuss the implications of these results for acculturation theory and research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-285
Number of pages11
JournalCultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2008


  • acculturation
  • biculturalism
  • Hispanic
  • latent class analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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