Since the introduction of new antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents in the last decade, large-scale data studying gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are lacking. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified all hospitalizations from 2006 to 2012 that required PCI. Temporal trends in the incidence and multivariate predictors of GIB associated with PCI were analyzed. A total of 4,376,950 patients underwent PCI in the United States during the study period. The incidence of GIB was 1.1%. Mortality rate in the GIB group was significantly higher (9.71% vs 1.1%, p <0.0001). Although the incidence of GIB remained stable during the study period (0.97% in 2006 to 1.19% in 2012), in-hospital mortality rate increased significantly from 7.9% in 2006 to 10.78% in 2012, with a peak of 12% in 2010. The GIB group had a longer median length of stay (5.80 vs 1.57 days) and an increased median cost of hospitalization ($26,564 vs $16,879). The predictors of GIB included cardiovascular co-morbidities such as acute myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, valvular heart diseases, and a history of transient ischemic attack/stroke. Gastrointestinal co-morbidities including diverticulosis, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, small intestine cancer, large intestine cancer, rectosigmoid cancer, gastrointestinal ulcer, and liver disease were predictors of GIB. Interestingly, a lower risk of GIB was associated with obese patients and patients with private insurance. A higher risk of GIB was noted in urgent versus elective admissions and weekend versus weekday admissions. In conclusion, the incidence of GIB in patients who underwent PCI remained stable from 2006 to 2012; however, the in-hospital mortality increased significantly. Identifying patients at higher risk for GIB is critically important to develop preventive strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine