The Src family kinases are a family of intracellular, non-receptor tyrosine kinases that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including the regulation of inflammation and apoptosis after brain hypoxia. Caspase-1 (C1) activates IL-1β through the formation of complex structures, the inflammasomes, while caspase-8 (C8) is part of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. C8 has been found to directly activate the production of IL-1β. Previously, we observed that C1 and IL-1β are increased in the acute phase after hypoxia in the brain of piglets, but they follow a different pattern long term, with C1 remaining activated throughout the period of observation, while IL-1β returning to baseline at 15 days. Src kinase inhibition ameliorated the activation of C1 and IL-1β early, but did not appear to have any effect long term. Prompted by these findings, we assessed the changes that occur over time (1 h and 15 days) in C1 and C8 activities after brain hypoxia as well as the effect of pretreatment with a Src kinase inhibitor, PP2 on these biochemical markers. Enzymatic activities were determined by spectrophotometry with measurements of C1 and C8 in each cytosolic brain sample (N = 4 in each group). We found that C1 and C8 activities increase in the acute phase following hypoxia in the brain of newborn piglets, with C8 relatively more than C1 (C8/C1 ratio increased from 2:1 as baseline to 3:1 in hypoxia). Fifteen days after hypoxia C8/C1 ratio decreased to about 1:1. In piglets that were pretreated with a Src kinase selective inhibitor (PP2) and then subjected to hypoxia, the C8/C1 ratio early increase was not observed. Immediately after hypoxia C8 and C1 follow a similar pattern of increase while long term this appears to dissociate. We propose that following this experimental methodology, the previously observed IL-1β production after hypoxia might be associated with C8 rather than C1 and that Src kinase is involved in the above process.
- Hypoxic ischemic brain injury
- Newborn piglet
- Src kinase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience