Technology Readiness Index (Tri): A Multiple-Item Scale to Measure Readiness to Embrace New Technologies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1315 Scopus citations


The role of technology in customer-company interactions and the number of technology-based products and services have been growing rapidly. Although these developments have benefited customers, there is also evidence of increasing customer frustration in dealing with technology-based systems. Drawing on insights from the extant literature and extensive qualitative research on customer reactions to technology, this article first proposes the construct of technology readiness of people and discusses its conceptualization. It then describes a program of research that was undertaken to operationalize the construct, develop and refine a multiple-item scale to measure it, and assess the scale’s psychometric properties. The article concludes with a discussion of potential practical applications of the scale and an agenda for additional research aimed at deepening our understanding of technology’s role in marketing to and serving customers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)307-320
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Service Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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